ADT: The technique that was used for the ADT commercial would be the appeal to fear. They’re basically telling the viewers that their house could have a burglar or even have their house caught on fire if they didn’t have this security system.
Google Search: The technique that was used for the Google search commercial would be appeal to emotions. The viewers would feel like their questions would have a simple solution by using Google search. Using Google search would make things so much easier, including learning how to say some phrases from a different language.
Around the time of the red scare and the cold war, people began to fear that communism may leak into the United States and destroy the type of life they have come to cherish. In order for people to become more aware of it, the government and other media companies began to advertise against it and use multiple forms of propaganda to fight it. Amongst one of the biggest forms of propaganda techniques was the appeal to fear (Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population). In this image I have linked below, the portrayal of communism destroying and burning down the U.S. is shown. This is technique is constantly used in order to instill fear into the minds of many when fighting a political battle. It is also used in Political campaigns, where opponents will make the opposition appear scary and threatening to their lifestyle in order to make the opponent look bad. Another technique used in this image is exaggeration (An exaggeration (or hyperbole) occurs when the most fundamental aspects of a statement are true, but only to a certain degree.) I am not saying that I am for communism, but if it were to happen I don’t think the country would completely burn down in flames and it then be the end of the world. China has done rather well for itself despite being a communist country, and it is possible for that type of government to succeed. A more accurate image would portray something along the lines of a lacking of choices or decisions, or even people having less say on what they can or can’t do in their country.
Advertising and the techniques advertisers use have been highly controversial for a long time, across the globe. According to Wikipedia there are 34 different techniques that can be used to promote propaganda in advertisements. The example I chose is an advertisement by the World Wildlife Foundation against the commercial use of animals, and especially exotic (and presumably endangered) animals. The advertisement uses a few of the propaganda techniques, including exaggeration and association.
Exaggeration is “making something seem more powerful, meaningful, or real than it actually is” (Wikipedia). In this ad the use of exaggeration is rather obvious, with her carry-on luggage leaving a trail of blood, the blood of exotic animals turned souvenirs. The message is that something as innocent and ineffectual as a memento of a trip can be tainted by the business of hunting and killing rare animals.
Association ”projects positive or negative qualities of a person, group, place, or idea onto another person, group, place, or idea in order to make the latter appear more favorable or to discredit it. Often highly visual, this technique often uses symbols superimposed over other visual images” (Wikipedia). This ad associates the purchase of souvenirs by tourists in a foreign country with the killing of exotic animals. The traveler leaves a trail of blood throughout the airport as she makes her way to her gate or as she leaves the building.
The “beautiful people” technique is the type of propaganda that employs famous people or beautiful, happy people, depicting them having a good time. This makes the audience think that if they by the product, they too will become beautiful, happy, and successful. The Old Spice commercials employ conventionally attractive men (or in this particular commercial, one man) that become irresistible to conventionally attractive women after using any one of their products. Stereotyping is another technique employed in this particular Old Spice commercial uses this technique in a humorous, ironic way, depicting a parody of the stereotypical “macho manly man” image.
By Caitlyn Nurnberg
The ad I chose was a Cover Girl advertisement that was showcasing their “Simply Ageless Makeup” featuring Ellen DeGeneres. The two types of propaganda that are used in this advertisement are ‘appeal to fear’, and ‘beautiful people’. It uses the appeal to fear because many people, generally women more so, are scared of looking older, and the ad is telling you that makeup will make you look youthful and beautiful. It uses ‘beautiful people’ because entire ad is centered around a celebrity, in this case Ellen DeGeneres, who is shown wearing the product and looking beautiful, and saying that this product works.
This one caused me a bit of a problem. When I look for an ad I think of magazines and television. On the internet I am looking for information and ignore the ads. When I went looking for advertisement yesterday I discovered the De Anza College computers filters are remarkably good. They certainly filtered ads out of my old standbys the Los Angeles Times and the San Jose Mercury.
I looked under automobile advertisements on internet and choose Relay Rides. Relay Rides is a peer-to-peer company that matches car owners with a car renter. It is located in several cities in the U.S.
Two techniques I found were the testimonial and repetition. There are three testimonials at the bottom of the website explaining why they choose Relay Rides and how it helps to cover the expense of their car.
The ad does not use scare techniques to persuaded one to sign up. Repetition/simplification are used to show how easy it is to use on the various webpages. At the top and bottom of the page is a button inviting one to list their car.
I am not in favor of peer-to -peer rentals. When you cut out the middle man you are removing people who work full time in car rental business. As opposed to some one doing it part time. To use a slogan and propaganda technique, the car rental clerk you put out of a job could be your mother.
This ad uses the appeal to fear which is a type of propaganda that creates anxiety or panic in people who do not consume the product. In this ad, Peta is trying to make people fearful that if they continue to eat meat, then they will become fat. Transferring, or association, is also apparent in this ad by the fact that the ad uses the words “whale” and “blubber,” which are words commonly used to describe people who are over weight, negatively to discredit the consumption of animal products. The ad implies the ideas that fat people always consume meat and vegetarians are always skinny there by promoting vegetarianism.
- Shreya Zalani
The advertisement that I have chosen features Aishwarya Rai Bachchan and is about a new shampoo by L’Oreal Paris. This commercial uses the two fallacies of ad nauseam and appeal to authority. In ad nauseam, a particular statement or slogan is repeated so many times that it may seem like the truth. In this commercial, statistics such as ’90% of Indian women’, which may or may not be true, the name of the product ‘Total Repair 5′ and the slogan, ‘Because I’m/We’re worth it’ are all repeated multiple times to convince the viewers. The technique of appeal to authority is to use a public figure to endorse a product or speak about an issue. In this advertisement, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, an actress is used to make the viewers believe that the company’s product will benefit them.
By Gina Wang
Beautiful people: The advertising convince people to buy their product through using famous people or others to create a certain image that people would want to have.
This advertising tries to convince their audience that if they bought the car, they will be as manly and attractive as cowboys.
Ad nauseam: To make audiences believe the content of advertising, the advertising use repetition to emphasize their idea.
This advertising repeats “the man” to start every sentence.
By: Brenda Romero
The propaganda poster I chose is “Soldier without Guns” (1941-1945). It shows women without guns helping in the war efforts by picking up jobs back at home. The two techniques that were used are virtue of words and slogans. The techniques are used as attention grabbers. They promote patriotism of women war efforts with using the word soldier without guns.
Here is the link to the poster
Photoshop Images in Fashion Magazines
What makes a beautiful model in a fashion magazine picture? An unblemished skin, a body that is free from any disgusting body fat, and the height to match their striking poses? Beautiful young women such as these can be seen in a variety of fashion magazines. Fashion magazines that are targeted to young girls ages 11 and 18, flips through these pages. However, as much as readers love to see how a model looks with a brand name outfit, their beauty is magnified and edited with the use of a picture editing tool known as, Photoshop. Thanks to Photoshop, media literacy should be taught to young girls’ ages 11 to 18, to help them understand they are being manipulated by the fake beautified pictures of these models in the fashion magazine.
According to a study in Pediatrics, about two-thirds of girls in the 5th to 12th grades said that magazine images influence their vision of an ideal body (Ross, Carolyn, 2014). Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. The more teens thought about the pictures and compared themselves critically to models they saw in fashion magazines, the more likely they were to have problems with their own body image. When young girls see a picture of a beautiful model in a magazine, wearing perfectclothes and wearing beautiful make-up, they would want to be just like that individual in the paper. But what can society do when the media uses fashion magazines project these images? In a Huffingtonpost article, written by Vivian Diller, Ph.D, suggests that people need to relieve America’s youth of the pressure to meet unrealistic body standard established by these distorted images, The American Medical Association (AMA) stated that it was against image manipulation, stating that photo alteration tools such as Photoshop can contribute to unrealistic body image expectations (Diller, 2007). Teenagers would be willing to change their image or the way they because they want to have that perfect look the media claims, not knowing it is all unreal. In fact, these models get their picture taken and the studio gets their real picture Photoshopped. Meaning their waist gets slimmer, their neck becomes longer, the pimples or zits on their faces completely vanish, and would even make their skin lighter too; making the ‘perfect look’. Thanks to the AMA, it is just beginning to raise public awareness of the impact of image manipulation on childhood development. Knowing that photo alteration tools such as Photoshop can contribute to the way young girls see their own body image, it is very important that they are educated with the knowledge that those beautiful models in the fashion magazine pictures is not, in fact, like that in real life.
”We’re seeing girls at younger ages starting to be dissatisfied with their bodies, proactively trying to change them, and feeling like they need to emulate something different than what their bodies can do,” says Elissa Gittes, MD, a pediatrician in the division of adolescent medicine atChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (Huebeck, Elizabeth, 2011). In an attempt to emulate the countless media images they view, girls would often go to extremes. Many end up with very low self-esteem, and some with dangerous eating disorders. According to the textbook, Mass Media: In a Changing the World, the ideal female model for a fashion magazine must be 5 feet 4 inches tall and weigh less than 120 pounds. Just looking at these images in the fashion magazines, young girls will be pressuring themselves to lose weight just to remain thin. The Photoshopped pictures influences the girls to diet secretly without telling anyone, which can cause harmful damage to their own bodies making it unhealthy. Young girls’ self-esteem will be tested because they cannot help but compare themselves to the models in the magazine. They will be thinking, “If only I had a trainer or a stylist, then I will end up looking like that.” Why are teens focused on staying thin after seeing the pictures on a magazine? In Western society, the media pushes that sort of thought into magazines knowing that young girls are the largest consumers when it comes to fashion. The magazine wants the viewers, in this case young girls that are around in the ages of 11 to 18, want them to have that mindset of needing to look like the models. So, they have that “thin at all costs” movement that rages and defines the Western culture; which can cause a problem. If a young girl who happens to be 5 foot 3 and weigh 140 pounds, she is going to compare herself to that image in the magazine and her self-esteem will more than likely be challenged as well. According to the article Why Do Women Hate Their Bodies by Carolyn Ross, MD, in Psycentral, a study in Pediatrics, about half of the girls who are in 5th to 12th grade, said the images made them want to lose weight (Ross, Carolyn, 2014). Young girls’ view the magazine at an early age and that is when they start pressuring themselves about getting the right body image society tells them too. If media literacy is being taught to young girls about theimages in these fashion magazines, they will know the real life models in the magazines are not at all as they appear to be, and these girls will have the idea of what a “real” healthy ideal body looks like.
According to a fashion magazine known as Glamour, by journalist Shaun Dreisbach, “Nearly 60 percent [of women] feel it’s OK for a woman to tweak her personal pictures” (Dreisbach, Shaun, 2013). In an article of Glamour magazine, it explained how a large percentage of young girls would Photoshop their pictures to get rid of any ‘imperfections’. Glamour commissioned an independent nationwide survey of 1,000 women to find out what their intake is with Photoshopping ones picture. Apparently, many women have no problem with digitally erasing small imperfections such as pimples, baby fats, or other imperfections. However, they only agree to a certain extent. To some young girls, having their photo beautified can be flattering for their image. They feel they are compelled to fix any imperfections they see on the image. They compare themselves to the pictures of the fashion magazines, and cannot help but go ahead and retouched their own photos, adding longer legs, whiter skin, whiter teeth, and anti-blemishes; anything to help them look even slightly closer to the pictures in the magazine. In the Post-Dispatch, written by fashion editor, Debra D. Bass, she interviewed a full-time photo editor whose job was to take pictures of celebrities, Meg Hensley. “Slimming and changing arms or a waist is not meant to create something unnatural or exaggerated, it’s not meant to be malicious on purpose,” Hensley said. “The goal is not making a size 2 look as if she’s a size negative 33, but she just might be standing in a way that makes her arm look big in proportion to her body orshe slouched, but otherwise it’s a good image.” (Bass, Debra, 2014). It is not necessary a bad thing to use Photoshop to edit ones pictures. As Dreisbach from Glamour found out, a handful of women claim that it can be a good thing, because it helps shed some light on how they physically look. To them, it is okay to make your arms look more slimmer, or your face to be clear from zits. But to some extent, meaning the pictures in the magazines can be extremely edited to the point where the celebrity is nearly unrecognizable. Young girls will be going through puberty, meaning they will have to go through so many physical changes as well, so to them, they find a photo alteration tool such as Photoshop can be a good thing, especially since they see the models in the magazines use them as well. It is true that the use of Photoshop to manipulate the pictures in a magazine is a concern for young girls. But when it comes to publicity and fashion magazines, a photographer can manipulate what the viewer sees. Some young girls are aware that what you see is not necessarily what you see in reality. So, if young girls are aware of the fact that the pictures they see in the fashion magazines is not 100% true and they are okay with having their pictures edited to look like a better version of themselves, as long as they know the risks.
In the End
According to a 2006 report by Magazine Publishers of America, 78% of young girls read magazines. A 1999 study made by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that teens 15 to 18 years old spend an average of 13 minutes daily reading magazines. Using Photoshop in a fashion magazine to attract young girls can be a mixture of positive and negative. Positive, because as some of the editors say, it can make their models or celebrities clear from any sligh timperfections, giving them that classic beauty looks. But perhaps too much of Photoshop can have a negative side-affect as well because based on the research, many girls between the ages of 11 to 18, compare themselves to the images they see in fashion magazines such as Vogue and even Seventeen magazines. A small comparison can lead to a bigger effect, where girls compare their body image and then their self-esteem becomes tested. It is not very easy to just hide these young girls from the media. It is impossible to hide the fashion magazines that are littered in every doctor’s offices, even at the store. But it would be a great opportunity for the parents to get involved, as they educate these young girls. At this generation, it is very important that social media is taught to young girls at least at the ages of 11 to 18. They need to understand what is being shown to them because at the end of the day, Photoshop usage in a fashion magazine still exists today.
If you have ever heard of the TV show South Park, you probably thought it is a stupid animated show filled with toilet humor and obscene jokes. And I wouldn’t blame you. However, South Park is a lot more than just over the top humor. What some people fail to realize, that it is actually a satire, meaning that they cleverly poke fun at a wide range of topics. However, because of this, South Park has been a subject of controversy as well. This show has been criticized and shrouded in controversy since its creation in 1997. A lot of people believe this show has a poor taste in humor, and the way they make fun of people or groups of people are classless. However, no one is safe from South Park’s crosshairs. The show has made fun of everyone, even went as far as pulling off a prank on its own fans and viewers. Nearly every group of people or a famous individual has been made fun of (Delingpole, 2010). People shouldn’t take South Park too seriously, in the end it’s just a satirical show, and everyone is subject to the show’s satirical humor.
If you have ever watched an episode of South Park, the first thing you will notice is the foul language and its poor taste of humor. Things you’ll typical see in an episode are the four main characters; Kyle, Kenny, Stan, and Cartman, up to some random antics. They would usually be a heavy usage of bad words, a lot of toilet humor, Cartman teasing or annoying Kyle for being a Jew, and most of the time one of the main characters, Kenny, would randomly die a gruesome and comical death, with Stan crying “Oh my god! They killed Kenny!” (Delingpople, 2010) which would be a running gag throughout the show. Because of this, many people condemn the show. They would usually say the show just has a poor and immature taste in humor, and it’s just a pointless TV show. Or is it? Some episodes, actually do convey a message, and it’s not a dumb and stupid message like you would expect, they would actually put out a meaningful message, or one that would make you think. If it’s not a message, then it would be a satire, making fun of someone or an issue that is relevant when the episode first aired. In a way the stupid sense of humor and the foul language is really just a shell, with the clever theme hidden within it (Martinez, 2003). However, some just can’t get through its shell, and it’s easy to see why. For example, in one episode, the word shit was used a total of 162 times, uncensored, with a counter in the lower left corner counting how many times it was used (Rodman, 2012, pg. 47). Co-creator Matt Stone said of this “No one cares anymore, the standards are almost gone (Dudak, 2013). The show was at its most vulgar during its first season, since it was new and it was something that people have never seen on TV, with almost every episode in the first season dealing with some sort of controversy (Dudak, 2013). It shows that South Park just isn’t for everyone. While some can handle, some just can’t. The best thing to do for South Park’s critics is to not watch the show, or not to pay any attention to it at all. Its controversial status is one of the reasons why it has become such a popular TV show.
South Park has also touched on some very sensitive issues. However they have done so in satirical fashion. One of the more sensitive issues they have touched is religion, and South Park has a long history of mocking religions. In fact, some of the most popular and fan loved episodes were also infamous for touching on this topic. One of the first instances is when they mocked the religion of Scientology during the episode “Trapped in the Closet.” After this episode was aired, it was met with a lot of negative attention. One of the show’s cast members, Isaac Hayes, who portrayed the character “Chef”, left the show since he too was a Scientologist. Tom Cruise, a Scientologist who was one of the celebrities mocked in the episode, even went as far as trying to pull the show off the air (Dudak 2013). In another episode “All About Mormons”, it mocks the Mormon religion through song, which would be a running gag throughout the episode (Dudak, 2013). However, when it came to controversy over religion, “Cartoon Wars Part 1”, “Cartoon Wars Part 2”, “200”, and “201” were the most controversial (Dudak 2013). This time however these episodes touched on the religion of Islam. What made it so controversial was the depiction of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (Bourguet, 2012). When “Cartoon Wars Part 1” aired, it was met with some controversy, since it implied that Muhammad would be depicted. When the episode was over, it was left on a cliffhanger, encouraging viewers to stay tuned to see if Muhammad was actually depicted or not in the next episode (Bourguet, 2012). When it was followed by “Cartoon Wars Part 2”, Comedy Central censored the scene where Muhammad was depicted. Both Matt Stone and Trey Parker thought it was ridiculous due to the fact they have depicted Muhammad in an earlier episode called “Super Best Friends”, where many religious prophets were portrayed as a league of superheroes, much like The Avengers or The Justice League. In this episode, Muhammad was depicted with no controversy whatsoever (Bourguet, 2012). Both Stone and Parker would revisit this controversy again in episodes “200” and “201.” Both these episodes made fun of and revisited nearly every controversy and memorable moments throughout South Park’s history and packed them all into 2 episodes, with the Muhammad issue again being the hot topic (Bourguet 2012). Comedy Central and both Matt Stone and Trey Parker even received death threats from Islamic extremists if they went through with the depiction of Muhammad (Dudak 2013). Co-creator Matt Stone had this to say about the death threats “Cartoonists, people who do satire – we’re not in the army and this is our time to do the right thing.” (Delingpole 2010) Both Stone and Parker intended to have Muhammad appear in the episode “201”, but he was censored out by Comedy Central once again, out of fears that Muslim extremist might actually take action. Ironically during the episode, one of the meanings that the creators tried to get through, is to not to give into fear and not let terrorism win (Bourguet, 2012). However, people can understandably be offended from these episodes. Many Muslims were offended just by the implications that Muhammad might be depicted and the audacity of the creators to do so, and called for an apology (“South Park Controversies” 2004.). Because of this, these episodes have also touched on the issue of censorship and free speech as well, due to the fact that South Park’s creators intended to have Muhammad depicted uncensored, just like in the episode “Super Best Friends.” After this issue, both “201” and “202” were not able to be seen on South Park Studios, South Park’s official website where you can re-watch previous South Park episodes. The episode “Super Best Friends” was pulled out as well, and in the Season 14 DVD it shows the censored version of the episode “201”, instead of the original uncensored version (Bourguet, 2012). Although South Park’s mockery and issues with religion is extremely sensitive, the creators do have the right to free speech, given to us in the First Amendment.
South Park is just an animated show that is a satire, everyone gets made fun of and we shouldn’t take this show too seriously. There were many occasions where people have. Some people just see it as a show that is too vulgar for TV. This show has even mocked some very sensitive issues, from political beliefs to religions, this show has mocked it all. It has even mocked a couple of famous celebrities, with some of these celebrities trying to sue them or get the show off the air. I still stand by my belief that we shouldn’t take this show seriously. Most of South Park’s critics and victims can’t even see past its crude humor and language and see that the show is actually pretty clever, which is the reason why there are many people; myself included, who are huge fans of the show. People have even taken it too seriously to the point they have given death threats to its creators and Comedy Central. It’s their show, and it’s their work, and they deserve to do whatever they want with the show, even if it offends people, the show’s creators are entitled to the rights given to them, especially free speech.
- Dudak, C (2013, September 23). South Park: A History of Controversy. February 19, 2014 from http://www.mandatory.com/2013/09/23/south-park-a-history-of-controversy/
- Delingpole, J (2010, May 3). South Park: The most dangerous show on television? February 19, 2014 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/7671750/South-Park-The-most-dangerous-show-on-television.html
- Martinez, G (2003, March/April). South Park TV satire skewers John Edward psychic pretensions. February 19, 2014 from http://ezproxy.fhda.edu:2219/psychology/docview/219283907/CB49151A48054EF3PQ/1?accountid=38235
- Rodman, G (2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2006). Mass Media in a Changing World: Fourth Edition. New York City, New York. Mcgraw-Hill
- Bourguet, G (2012, February 19). Studying South Park [Web log post] from February 19, 2014 from http://studyingsouthpark.wordpress.com/
- South Park Controversies (n.d.) In Wikipedia retrieved March 2, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Park_controversies
Journ 2 T/ Th 5:23
Reality TV and its effect on teen’s media literacy
Teens (ages 13 to 19) are the generation that is mostly likely to watch reality TV shows, and be effected by it in some way. Reality TV shows effect teen’s morality, ethics, media literacy, world views, and can correlate or cause violent behavior among others. According to Rodman (pg.5), media literacy is defined as “the ability to understand and make productive use of the media”. Do reality shows like Jersey Shore, Keeping up with the Kardashians, Buck Wild, and the Real world hinder or help teen’s media literacy? According to Barovick, reality TV was first created to get a perspective on an American family, but in 1992 producers started to produce cheap and easy reality fare to intrigue more viewers. The expectation for more viewers created the reality TV shows that teens are now being consumed by.
There is a big controversy regarding whether or not reality TV affects teen’s media literacy. Media literacy is the way the viewer takes the information given to them by a media outlet. Many argue that teens are more media literate and can decipher what is happening on TV than generations in the past. According to Bernstein, “young people today are exceptionally media literate and are quite used to observing, rating, and critiquing the personal stories that are spilling out of their televisions”, compared to generations in the past that had TV shows filled with moral stories or lectures at the end of the show. Personal example is being taught life lessons by watching Full house, The Cosby show, or even Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, regardless of their comedic backstory they always took the time at the end to make sure you knew what the moral of the story was. In reality shows now you really have to analyze and decipher for yourself what the producers or what the show is trying to tell us, according to Dworetzky “teens experience a collage that is either so real –or it’s doctored…” So it’s really up to them to really believe what they see. When I was a teen I still had a little bit of innocence’s to me, so if my 13 year old self was watching Real world on MTV, I would have thought, that is the way to act when you’re in your 20’s. That alone does not say that all teens believe what they see, Lisa Stein head of critical communications at SDSU believes that “TV young viewers today are media savvy… a big reason they watch TV programs is for the pure enjoyment of picking them apart later”. Even though they might not always get the message right, they are still thinking about the topic that was presented in the program, according to Bernstein, “they perceive themselves as participants, they can relate or condemn”. Having them process information then have it handed to them is much better in the long run because it creates a new system of opinions. We also have to keep in mind that not all teens think the same, Bernstein states, “some 13-14 year old may or may not see the difference in reality”, a teenage girl seeing the Bachelor may perceive the show in a positive romantic way and another might think that it is wrong for a guy to hook up with all those girls. Now with teens being so media savvy and wanting to discuss how ridiculous or how great the show was has had a tie in with social media. According to Donnelly, reality TV in general has helped make teens more media literate by incorporating a media outlet where they can express their thoughts, like twitter, Facebook, or comments on YouTube. Reality TV is not always good for teens but it does get them discussing and critically thinking about what had accord on the latest episode, regardless if they got the real concept down.
Teenagers that are not media literate don’t know how to decipher reality from the reality show, hindering their morality and ethics. According to Dworetzky, “we anchor our perception in our own point of view”, but that is a real problem when dealing with teenagers that are so easily influenced by the world around them. They might already have their set opinion on a certain topic of a show but as soon as someone else disagrees with them, they are likely to take the other persons side because they may not want to be seen as uncool. Reality TV also plays with the language and the actions that some teenagers carry on, Bernstein explains that, “profanity, sexual references, rudeness, and shocking behavior”, is what you see dished out on reality TV shows and is cater exclusively to teens. Teens are still learning and their brains are like sponges so they are still going to absorb everything they see or hear. Reality shows like Keeping up with the Kardashians and the Jersey Shore are filled with sexual content and explicit language that teens see and then later carry out. They may think that just because their favorite TV personality carelessly calls out someone it is ok for them to do the same. There is another topic of concern when teens are watching these explicit shows, will they imitate what is happening in their favorite show, according to Bernstein many teens say “just because it’s must-see TV… it doesn’t mean must-imitate TV”. Some teens will watch an episode of the Kardashian, partying it up in Miami and hooking up with random stranger and immediately think wow that is not right. Other teens might think wow look at how fearless and confident they are just going up to that cute boy maybe I can do the same . Parents are most concerned that their teen will be intrigued by the glamorization of partying, sex, and the praise in the vulgar language used in these shows, that it will be easy for them to fall into a bad road. Producers of these shows might blame teen’s morality and ethics on bad parenting but Bernstein argues that reality TV “is like having your teen’s most troubling friend hanging out, cursing, and smoking in your living”. Even if you kick that friend out your teen is still going to find a way to keep in contact with this friend behind your back.
Reality TV Shows that claim to be educational can really lead to stereotyping and violence because teens are yet not fully educated about the world around them. There are many shows like Sister Wives, Breaking Amish, Buck Wild, Honey Booboo and others, that are supposed to show you the lives of these groups of individuals. But because of wanting to gain many viewers, producers just show you what they want, like the drama and humility of these people. According to Dworetzky, “teens today see a world of jump cuts between easy 22- minute solutions…” This can give the viewer a small glimpse of the actual truth and distorted truth. Many teens take what they see on an episode of Buck wild and immediately assume that all people from the Deep South act just how these individuals act. This can lead to stereotyping and bullying someone just because they are from this certain region even though they act completely different. There are other shows that show people from different parts of the world and if you never actually learned or heard about this demographic then you might immediately think that whatever this particular show is showing you is actually true. If you do know that you shouldn’t take into account everything that the show is showing then you can use some concepts as tools for learning. Bernstein also discussed how Dellasega found evidence that reality shows like Americas Next Top Model has had a cultural shift among teen girls. These shows bring out the competitive side among girls; they constantly show these women openly bashing one another to make it to the top. Teenage girls are taking this and using it in real life and thinking it’s okay to talk down to one another instead of supporting one another. Reality TV shows that are made for educational purposes should not be viewed in that way because in the forms that they are doctored to just show what can get the most views.
All in all, teens in this day in age are said to be more media literate because they have to decipher what is happening instead of being spoon fed the actual message. Teens are also more media savvy which helps their media literacy because they have more outlets to express their concerns. Reality shows don’t have the best morality leading some teens to misinterpret information.
Bernstein, M (2008). Does Reality TV for teens induce bad behavior? http://www.cleveland.com/entertainment/index.ssf/2008/03/does_reality_tv_for_teens_indu.html
Donnelly, K. (2008). Youth Participation and Media Literacy on The-N.com. Simile, 8(1), 1-11. doi:10.3138/sim.8.1.003
Dworetzky, T. (1992). Teens: Will TV become their virtual (and only) reality?. Omni, 14(12), 16.
By Gina Wang
March 4th, 2014
Most of the movies we see are produced by big companies with strong financial support, such as Hollywood, which sells its movies to practically every country in the world. Famous actors, actresses and scenes that involve high quality special effects or huge amount of budget are usually included in a big production company’s movies. Those movies also have all kinds of promotions such as playing its trailer on television to attract people’s attention. Independent films, however, are produced by those who do not belong to any big production companies. Low budget is one of the characteristic of independent films that are stylistically different form Hollywood films, which is strictly from a director or the writer’s point of view and nothing is changed because of rich producers telling them what to add/change. However, independent films and its creativities are limited by not only marketing but also financial struggles because the movie industry is dominated by the major production companies that spend more than necessary to produce an average quality film. Hence, the public should support independent films, so the movie industry would have a variety of movies instead of it being dominated by major production companies.
To create the best quality out of minimum resources, independent films have fewer budgets to use but more freedom to produce a movie. Comparing to a big production company, an independent film maker has less financial support which creatively limits them to use more imagination to complete a movie. In Mass Media in a Changing World, George Rodman states that independence films “… are usually made with lower budgets but allow their makers more creative freedom than do major studios” (Rodman, 2012). Independent film makers will not have enough money to make a thirty second scene of a exploding car as a Hollywood movie do, so they need to fill in the blanks of the movies with their talent. Rodman also claims that “they also rely less on stars and special effects and more subject matters and dialogs” (Rodman, 2012). Independent films do not always include those elements; such as stars and three dimensional effects, to attract people to watch their movies. Instead of using special visual images, they tend to have a stronger story line or other elements that will surprise audiences which would result to a great movie. This is firm reason why the public should support more independent films which not only brings out more creativity in movies, but also gives younger aspiring filmmakers opportunities to start their dreams of producing, directing and creating.
Without the restriction, pressure, and involvement from major production companies, independent film makers are able to express different point of views through their movies. Major production companies produce movies that make money for them which usually follow a certain theme, such as good beating evil, a boy meets girl or psychological lesson. Independent film makers are more likely to think out of the box to establish a story which does not always end happily. Pen-ek Ratanaruang, who is an Indonesia independent film maker, was interviewed by Tilman Baumgärtel in Southeast Asian independent cinema: essays, documents, interviews, and he stated that “I just thought that these things need to be told through film” (Baumgärtel, 2010) when “[her] film Arisan! featured gay and lesbian characters, a subject matter that is kind of taboo in Indonesia” (Baumgärtel, 2010). Her personal opinion toward gay or lesbian was delivered successfully to the public through her film whether the public agrees with it or not. This is an example of an independent filmmaker making a film that is proving an important point that some Hollywood movies tend to ignore. “In most of the Indonesian films, the story is about women, and love, and all that. Even in our horror movies, the ghost always a woman” (Baumgärtel, 2010), she said that “she is always the victim and the story is always told from a very male point of view. So I want to talk about women from a female point of view” (Baumgärtel, 2010). Different country might have different kinds of independent film production which is exactly the value of independent films. Tilman Baumgärtel’s movie might not have such a big success in America because gay and lesbian are not taboo in American society. Acknowledging different groups of audiences with different contents is what makes independent films so unique.
Although movies produced by major production companies have less creative freedom and different point of views, they are able to present the newest special effects and technology which makes their imagination visualized in most of the movies. Special effects include varieties of elements from make up to the editing after shooting a scene. Liz Miles explained clearly in Movie Special Effect that “complicated special effects make today’s movies exciting and realistic” (Miles, 2009). She also gave some interested example of how to make those special effects, such as “[filming] a burning house, fuel tanks are hidden inside the house” (Miles, 2009). Instead of burning the house with fuel tanks, those “tanks can be turned on and off for a safe distance” (Miles, 2009).Today’s technology also allows presenting the imagination into actual image, such as the movie, Avatar. “Several decades in the dreaming and more than four years in the actual making, the movie is a song to the natural world that was largely produced with software, an Emersonian exploration of the invisible world of the spirit filled with Cameronian rock ’em, sock ’em pulpy action” (DARGIS, 2009). This movie is created through using the software to complete an imagination story. The major production movies definitely established a dream factory where the directors are able to put any imagination into the big screen.
Living in the world that strongly influenced by the media, we should be able to choose what we want to see instead of letting major production industry decide for us. Even though major production companies have stronger financial support to make all kinds of amazing visual effects, independent film makers has more freedom on creating the movies which usually provide different point of views. As long as the movie industry is still controlled by the four major production companies, movies will be limited to certain types and start to lose its certain quality, such as plot and point of view; however, supporting independent films will give a perfect solution for those problems. Independent films offer the chances of learning more from the special point of views that are not restricted by major production companies and open your eyes to see varieties of movies that surprised you with its amazing production. Supporting independent films will not only encourage creativity that makes more varieties of movies but also give people who just start their career more opportunities to success.
Baumgärtel, T. (2010). Southeast asian independent cinema : essays, documents, interviews. Retrieved from http://deanza.worldcat.org/title/southeast-asian-independent-cinema-essays-documents-interviews/oclc/794042426&referer=brief_results
DARGIS, M. (2009, December 17). A new eden, both cosmic and cinematic. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/18/movies/18avatar.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Miles, L. (2009, JUNE 1). Movie special effects. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=w_oh_P0lPLYC&dq=movie special effect&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Rodman, G. (2012). Mass media in a changing world. (4th ed., p. 161). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
By Gina Wang
Google defeated the request from GEMA in Germany‘s court. GEMA wanted Google to restrict the user from uploading the materials that they did not have any copyright of it on YouTube; however, Google Claimed that YouTube was an open platform to offer uploading and they had no right to restrict the content of it. I think Google was right that they have no right to restrict user. All the users could upload any materials they want.
JOUR 2 Mass Comm Brian F. Rose
Word count 1,525 03/03/ 2014
On the Jan 18, 2014 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia struck down parts of FCC Network Neutrality regulations covering broadband telecommunication. (Washington Post, 01/18/2014) The Court of Appeals ruled that anti-blocking and anti-discrimination did not apply to broadband providers because they not common carriers under FCC rules. (Fitch Ratings, Business Wire 01/152014) The ruling will allow top broadband companies Verizon, AT&T, Time-Warner and Comcast greater control over broadband speed, information and access. Net neutrality regulations touch on free speech, control of access, infrastructure upgrades and control of the internet.
In Captive Audience (2013) author Susan Crawford described communication regulation at the turn of the twenty first century as resting on one distinction, transport of information is a common carriage service, subject to oversight to prevent discrimination, oversight to prevent discrimination and required to connect with all networks. Everything else was treated as non common carrier service. (Susan Crawford Captive Audience p) Here is analogy, if you buy a coach ticket on the California Zephyr from Oakland to Chicago the railroad carriers you at the same price as anyone else with a coach ticket, this is common carriage service. The ticket does not give you access to the Pullman sleeping car. The sleeping car is an extra service. But if you paid for it you could not be discriminated against and denied service.
The debate over regulation started in a different form during the Gilded Age. Railroads were the big business of the nineteenth century. They carried the burden of financing and constructing the network. Railroad executives felt that since they built it they were free to charge what the market would bear. William H. Vanderbilt President of the New York Central remark “Let the public be damned” (Mass Media P 332), summed up the view many railroad executives. After numerous court cases attempting the regulate the railroads it was established that railroads were common carriers with natural monopoly between point’s A and B. (The American Heritage History of Railroads in America, 1975) They were subject to regulation via the commerce clause of the federal constitution. And the Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 to regulate them. (Beth, Loren P. the development of the American Constitution, 1877-1917, 1971)
At the turn of twentieth century a related area of controversy were the large trusts and combines being created by Wall Street banker J. P. Morgan. Morgan argued that the competition between business’s in the 1880s and 90s was wasteful and destructive. That large trusts and combines would create a regulated orderly market. The companies were either vertically or horizontally integrated depending on industry. (The Tycoons, Morris, Charles R., 2005) J. D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil was a leading example of vertically and horizontally integrated company. Ira Tarbell’s History of Standard Oil put the spotlight on Rockefeller and the trusts. (Mass Communications p334)
In the progressive era, President Theodore Roosevelt (Mowry, George E., The era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912, 1958) argued that the trusts were inhibiting competition. Regulated competition promoted growth and innovation. During Roosevelt term Standard Oil was broken up. His successor William Howard Taft was a firm believer in big business under government regulation and broke up more trusts then Roosevelt.
At this time the telephone network was being constructed. Telephones have allows subject to regulation via the franchise requirements of municipalities. Power and light companies, street railways and interurban railways were subject from the beginning to similar regulation. The franchise holder was providing a public service subject to regulation. Theodore Vail President of AT&T from 1907 to 1919 was a leading proponent of the natural monopoly subject to government regulation. Only a large company could afford to construct and run the telephone network infrastructure. And they had an obligation to innovate and provide the same service to everyone. (Garnet, Robert W., The Telephone enterprise: the evolution of the Bell System’s horizontal structure, 1876-1909)
In 2014 we have moved far from this view. The FCC removed the Financial Interest and Syndication rule preventing networks from owning the programs they broadcast in the 90s. (Captive Audience, 2013 p128) Before the 90s AT & T could not have owned content providers such as wire service or a movie studio. The result is the vertical integration of today (Captive Audience, 2013 p130). The telecom companies have been able to control a greater share of the market through vertical and horizontal integration. This has lead to an unprecedented control of content by the telecom giants. In the wireless world AT&T and Verizon are dominant. In cable it is Comcast and Time-Warner.
There has been a steady moving away from the consensus “that basic, nondiscriminatory, affordable utility communications services should be made available to all Americans is being dismantled, state by state.” In Europe the opposite is happening. The EU is committed to open internet access. (Thomas, Daniel Financial Times, 06/5/2013) In the Europe the view is it is a national priority to give fast internet service to all citizens as soon as possible. Countries are working to replace their copper wire cables with fiber optic cables to achieve this goal. (Captive Audience, 2013 P260)
There are a number of reasons why telecom companies oppose net neutrality rules. Netflix can use up to three fifths of a Comcast’s broadband at peak hours. A broadband provider has a legitimate reason to want to regulate that use. Net neutrality prevents Comcast from charging higher fees for access and faster service to large users of its broadband. (Fitch Ratings, Business Wire, 01/14/2014) Telecom companies argue they built the network. Internet companies such as Google and Yahoo are using it for free. The CEO of AT&T Ed Whitacre commented in strong language we built the system they are using for free, but he is not going to let them do that, Whitacre wants a return on the investment. (Neutrality” Ruling Paves the Way for Internet ‘Fast Lanes’, Gustin, Sam Time.com 1/15/2014)
And if net neutral was a purely technical matter it would not be so important. Verizon Wireless brought suit against the FCC claiming net neutrality violates its free speech rights. Net neutrality touches on free speech and not the way Verizon see’s it. (Verizon: FCC Net Neutrality Rules Violate First Amendment: Albanesius, Chloe, PC Magazine July 2012) Without net neutrality a private company effectively becomes the gatekeeper to the flow of information with no obligation to serving the public. Comcast could favor one of its own subsidiaries over and outside provider. Because they are not regulated as a common carrier they are free to provide whatever service they see fit to the public at the price they dictate. They can also dictate terms to content providers.
One effect is slow transmission of content such as Netflix. Broadband providers solution is to charge end user a premier price for fast service. They are under no obligation to provide fast service to everyone. (Captive Audience, 2005) AT&T and Verizon did not replace their copper wire network in many parts of New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy. Removing a source of redundancy in case of emergency. (Smith, Gerry, Huffington Post 11/09/2012)
There are remedies to this problem. The FCC could classify Telecom companies as common carries subject to regulation. It would be difficult to do in the current climate. The view is that government regulation restrains growth and innovation. However this is often not the case. Under ICC railroads were tightly controlled over rate structures, which did controlled their bottom line. But it was no brake on innovation, by the Forties, several railroads could move a hundred freight cars of California produce at up to one hundred miles an hour to Chicago. By comparison the unregulated US Steel made practically no innovations during this same period. (The Tycoons, Morris, Charles, 2005)
Communities can install their own fiber optic cables and provide broadband as a public service just like water and garbage pickup. Broadband providers are lobbying hard against this and have blocked it in several states. Cities with municipal power have the infrastructure in place. There is nothing to prevent say city of Santa Clara from installing a broadband network. The city of Chattanooga, TN. offers fiber optic service its municipal utility (Captive Audience, 256 2013)
Both the public and communities can take a leave from Henry Ford who used the media skillfully to wage a David v Goliath battle against the Association of License Automobile Manufacturers, and won his case in 1911. (The American Heritage History of the Automobile in America, 1977)
Free and open access to information is a right and not a luxury. The first amendment guarantees the right to free speech for everyone. Verizon concept of free speech is wrong, nowhere in the constitution does not give a company the right to be the gatekeeper of speech. The constitution does give the right to regulate commerce between the states to Congress. The FCC needs to regulate telecom companies as common carries. The amount of concentration they have is too great to allow them too have unfettered control over the access and transmission of information.
Crawford, S. (2013) Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power the Gilded Age. Yale U. Press.
In this book, Susan Crawford, a professor at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law discusses the parallels between today’s broadband providers and the 19th century monopolies. How the process of concentration is leading to America lagging behind other developed nations in telecommunications. Crawford discusses the effects of slower service and higher prices effects the end user.
Rodman, George (2012) Mass Media in a Changing World: Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill
Morris, Charles R. (2005) The Tycoons: how Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J. P. Morgan invented the American supereconomy. NewYork:, H. Holt and Co.
Beth, Loren P. (1971) The development of the American Constitution, 1877-1917, New American Nation Series. Harper Collins Pub.
Mowry, George E. (1958) The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America: Harper Collins Pub.
Garnet, Robert W. (1985) The telephone enterprise: the evolution of the Bell System’s horizontal structure, 1876-1909, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Oliver Jensen (1975) The American Heritage History of Railroads in America, American Heritage Pub. Co.: Distribution by McGraw-Hill
Sears, Stephen W. (1977) The American Heritage History of the Automobile in America, American Heritage Pub. Co.: Distribution by Simon and Schuster
Periodicals and Newspapers
EBSCO HOST source for articles
Powell, Alison and Cooper, Alissa Net Neutrality Discourses: Comparing Advocacy and Regulatory Arguments in the United States and the United Kingdom, Information Society, Oct-Dec 2011, Vol.27 issue 5 p311-325
Thomas, Daniel, Internet providers access pledge, 07/25/2012, Financial Times (London, England)
Thomas, Daniel, Brussels vows to stamp out web ‘throttling’ 06/05/2013,Financial Times (London, England)
Michelle, Maisto, FCC, net Neutrality Lose Out to Verizon in District Court Ruling, 01/14/2014 eWeek, Database: Business Source Elite
Fitch Ratings, Overturned Net Neutrality L/T Positive for Cable/Telecom, 01/15/2014 Business Wire
Gustin,Sam ‘Net Neutrality’ Ruling Paves the Way For Internet ‘Fast Lanes’ Time.com1/15/2014 Database: Business Source Elite
Chloe,Albanesius, Verizon: FCC Neutrality Rules Violate First Amendment. July 2012, PC Magazine
Kirchgaessner, Stephanie, Internet rules stir Republicans, 12/03/2010 Financial Times (London,England)
Strange, Adario, Netflix CEO Attacks Comcast Over net Neutrality Issues. April 2012 PC Magazine
By: Isaac Velasquez
This case involved the FCC vs. Fox cable network. In this case Fox was challenging fines placed on them by the Federal Communications Committee for showing indecent portrayals of mild nudity on some of their shows. They stated that the FCC did not have a right to fine them because they did not warn them ahead of time that they couldn’t show that.
I find it funny how Fox claims that they couldn’t be fined just because the FCC did not warn them ahead of time. It should seem pretty obvious that they would get in trouble for allowing that type of scene on their show without getting it cleared first.
The Digital Campaign
Whether its used for online shopping or reaching friends and relatives on social media, the internet has become an integral tool in our society. It’s use has found its way into the Political scene which in turn has changed the face of the traditional campaign. It’s use has become more and more evident as more candidates use this powerful tool to reach their constituents. It is a trend that will continue for many campaigns to come because of its proven effectiveness in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections.
The internet allows political campaign committees to use a rather inexpensive medium to post commercials and interviews on websites, blogs, and YouTube for voters to view as they please. In fact in 2008 Clinton, Edwards, Obama, and Sam Brownback all used Web videos to announce their candidacies(Haynes, 2009). These candidates recognized the potential impact that this medium could have and pushed to use it as often as they could. Polls show that three-quarters (74%) of internet users went online during the 2008 election to take part in, or get news and information about the 2008 campaign(Smith, 2009). The potential viewers and the reach of these video advertisements have risen drastically. A good internet campaign has the potential to garner countless valuable votes. This poll does not just pertain to the 18-25 years old demographic, it reflects the population as a whole. The availability of this technology not only increased the use of these websites by campaign committees but with it brought in a new audience. By late October of that year, 39 percent of voters had watched some sort of campaign-related video online, according to the Pew Research Center, up from the 24 percent who said in December, before the primaries began, that they had watched political videos(Schwabb,2008). This trend continued into the 2012 election but everything was on a much bigger scale. YouTube grew to show three billion hours of video per month to the eyes of its users, with clips also being embedded upon countless web pages. (Hayward, 2012)
Posting videos isn’t the only way that candidates were able to generate a buzz around their campaigns. Along with posting videos, political blogging has also taken centre stage with expressing a candidates views and political stance on certain issues. Much of what people see on these websites solidifies their view on the candidate and their political ideology, this in turn decides whether they vote for them or not. The process doesn’t end with just posting their blogs on a public forum, their blogs have the potential to reach more people than they originally intended. This is due to the fact that people share these blogs on their own private blogs or on other public websites. The most popular means to share posts were through email (52.5%), digg (50.8%), Facebook (47.5%), del.icio.us (44.1%), tumblr (37.3%), Reddit (35.6%), twitter (35%), Yahoo (30.5%), Google (27.1%), MSM (20.3%), MySpace (20.3%), Technorati (16.9%), and Newsvine (11.9%) (Allen,2010). The result is a greater reach of the candidates exposure to voters. There is a risk with releasing this information to the public because in the end people’s motives change when there is money involved. As advertisers move onto the Web even more, bloggers may become more concerned with audience numbers and this may affect the nature of their “reporting.” As a result survey experts can begin to see more manipulation of information- more astro-turfing of the blogosphere where campaigns and their supporters attempt to create buzz that feels like grassroots support but is in reality simply manufactured (Haynes,2009). This manipulation of information would be the result of spinning news, or the manipulation of information to make the speaker seem like they are saying the truth when in reality it is a bunch of lies.(Rodman, 2012)
Social media and blogs also played a major role in the 2012 election. In 2008 Obama did not have much of a challenge from Mccain on the online circuit but in 2012, Mitt Romney’s team put up a much better online fight. For example, both campaigns had online teams pumping out Twitter messages during the debates, with Obama’s team issuing a considerably higher volume of messages(Smith,2009). Since 2008, the use of Twitter has also grown dramatically, it became a major source of communication between the candidates and the public. For example, Mitt Romney’s digital director, Zac Moffatt, told The Washington Post that a few hours after a topic gathered steam on Twitter, the campaign turned to Facebook to see how it was resonating in the larger universe of public opinion(Blumenthal, 2012).
Besides gaining recognition, another important part in running a successful campaign is being able to get donations to keep funding all that the candidate wants to do. The internet and social media is also a very useful tool to achieve this goal. In the 2012 election Obama’s campaign team used the internet the best when it came to fundraising. In a report released after the election it was revealed that from Oct. 18 until the Election Day on Nov. 6 the president raised $88 million and spent $176 million. That far exceeded the $66 million raised by his rival Mitt Romney and the $107 million spent by the Republican presidential nominee during the same period (Blumenthal, 2012). Most of the money was spent on television ads, but the bulk of the money to buy those ads was initially generated by digital efforts, including email, social media, mobile and their own websites (Scherer, 2012). Obama’s campaign donations were not all gained through large donations, it was in fact composed of small $50-$100 donations given by normal everyday citizens. Motivated by their support for Obama, some fans took the initiative through the Internet, and Obama’s MyBO social networking site in particular, to raise money for Obama on their own, as well(Scherer, 2012). For example, some of Obama’s supporters created a page called “Obama Minute” through which they planned to raise one million dollars in a minute. Though they did not reach one million dollars, they did raise $250,000 for the President.
Along with name recognition and fundraising, the internet and social media sites are a helpful tool for data crunchers to determine where their demographic is and what is the best way to reach them. Google search data and YouTube views provide important tools for measuring public interest (Hayward, 2012). By collecting data on the number of clicks on certain videos and blogs, campaign researchers are able to see what is trending and what they should focus on pushing more. This is a powerful tool to help focus on a target audience and save money by allocating their media attention to a specific group instead of sending it out randomly. Using the digital consulting firm Blue State Digital for constant data collection, Obama’s supporters received e-mails with specialized content based on their state or congressional district, their interests, demographics, donation history, or past pattern of actions on behalf of the campaign (Leuschner, 2012). In the 2012 election, the size of followings on Twitter and Facebook were compared. Obama had far more Twitter followers; Romney picked up almost three times as many Facebook “Likes” during the debates(Hayward, 2012). Of course this isn’t a definite guarantee that they may get that vote because voter attitudes can change, especially with those who identify as independent. This style of data collecting was also beneficial the day the votes were cast to determine where a candidate stood. After people casted their votes, polls showed that, 22% of registered voters let others know how they voted on a social networking site such as Facebook or Twitter(Rainie, 2012).
With the access to virtually everybody on social media, these campaigns still have to comply with the rules set by Media’s Ethics. They have to make sure they are careful with the video advertisements that they put out into the online world. They simply cannot slander their opponent with claims that are not true. These committees have to be sure to keep in mind absolutist ethics. They need to have a clear-cut right or wrong response to every ethical decision that they have to make (Rodman,2012).
In conclusion, as technology has evolved the face of the political campaign has evolved alongside it. We have seen it play an integral role in both the 2008 and the 2012 elections by helping both candidates raise funds, predict demographics, and to gain name recognition. By being able to appeal to the masses and by analyzing data recorded from social media sites future candidates will be able to best mold their campaigns. There can only be speculation on how important these new venues will be, but if previous elections are any indicator it would be safe to say that they will play a pivotal role.
Although as Americans, we are given certain rights, one of them being freedom of speech, there are still people who manage to abuse the system thinking they are allowed to say anything. And in 2012, in the case The United States VS Alvarez, this was portrayed perfectly. Even though the first amendment in the constitution gives people the right to freedom of speech, they are not allowed to make false statements. Which is exactly what happen in this case. Alvarez made themselves seem more credible than they actually were by claiming they had been given a medal of valor, which in reality they did not. Because of which, the US sought to bring truth to their lies. And although the case did not successfully bring Alvarez down, other fraud charges ended up keeping him in jail.
People are constantly abusing the system hoping they could use the first amendment as their safety net, but they can only expect to be saved by it so many times. There are still things one can say, and one cannot.
One incdident that has occured recently was Edward Snowden leaking classified NSA documents.
It could a privacy/intrusion case, or an act that deals with censorship, since he leaked private, classified files. Personally, i’m glad he leaked those files because our government can be corrupt at times, and we as a people deserve to know what is going on in our country’s name.
In the Flood v. Times Newspaper case in 2012, Times was sued over a publication that involved possible police corruption. The story named Sergeant Gary Flood in particular and provided details of allegations that led to internal inquiry within the police department. The problem with the story publication in Times was that after it was informed that there was no evidence to be found to support the statements made in the story by Times months later, Times did not update their online article or attempt to rectify their misinformation in anyway. While the Reynolds privilege allows journalists to defend journalism that turned out to be wrong when they have acted responsibly when gathering their information, court appeals thought that the Reynolds privilege didn’t apply at all. It was decided that the main problem was the fact that the officer was named. In this case, the supreme court found that it was in the public interest to publish the name of the officer. One of the law lords, Lord Phillips, noted that it would have been impossible to publish the story of the allegations without naming the officer. The case of Flood v. Times Newspaper also balanced the police officer’s article 8′s rights:
“The creation of the Reynolds privilege reflected a recognition on the part of the House of Lords that the existing law of defamation did not cater adequately for the importance of the article 10 right of freedom of expression.”
I decided to do mine about Sheldon G. Adelson. He was a casino worker who had sued a Democractic group for spreading false statements saying he allowed prostitution in his casinos. In the end, the accusation had wrongfully caused him his job by Steve C. Jacobs.
I choose an article in Variety from July 13, 2013 about George Zimmerman’s Libel suit against .Zimmerman sued for NBC and reporter Ron Allen for defamation when they edited the 911 call he made to police. According to him it made him sound like a racist. The suit was on hold pending the outcome of his murder trial.
The article describes how a media defamation case works for plaintiff. And what a plaintiff has to do to prove their case. The article quotes several experts in media law.
The article points out that Zimmerman was a private person at the time of the 911 call. And after the 911 call he became a public figure. They quote Jody Armour, professor at USC’s Gould of Law. He will have to “prove knowledge that they knew that the information was false or had reckless disregard for the truth.”
I believe Zimmerman has a case. He should try to prove it in a court of law. But he is a public figure and it may hard to convince a jury that he was defamation. They may find for NBC as payback for the not guilty verdict.
In 2008, the Bush administration signed a new law that expanded the powers of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to conduct electronic surveillance on persons who are on foreign lands and are deemed by the aforementioned court target of interests based on only the fact that the person(s) has/have made contact with foreign intelligence agencies. Without the need to prove the person or persons in question having substantial connections to outside intelligence powers, the revised Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act enables warantless governmental monitoring of international communications, which means secret wiretapping, eavesdropping, intervening of emails, phone calls and other form of electronic communications are legal. In response, a number of lawyers, journalists and human rights organizations, including Amnesty International, filed a complaint to the federal court, claiming the law unconstitutional. A district court turned the case down, but the decision was reversed by a federal circuit court and appealed by the Obama administration, the case was taken to the Supreme Court. In the end, the case was dismissed based on the argument that the plaintiff do not have sufficient requirement for good standing. The plaintiff argued that because of the law, they had to spend more effort and resources in protecting the identity of their international contacts, which caused injuries. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper reasoned that the organizations were causing injuries to themselves because of their measures and that their injuries are not imminent. The Supreme Court agreed that the organizations were basing their fear out of speculation and made up worst case scenarios, then dismissed the case.
Comments: I agree with the Supreme Court’s decision because the plaintiff did not provide enough evidence to make a strong case on how the new law can truly harm people by invading their privacy. I also agree with the complaining groups’ viewpoint that this sets up precedence to the government’s further intrusion in telecommunications because the law didn’t have enough restrictions on who would be qualified to be observed, as it also affects US Citizens on foreign soil. I predict that someday a similar case will rise, with significant evidences to challenge the law’s constitutionality. For that, we will have to wait and see.
By Caitlyn Nurnberg
In 2013 there was a case in Virginia where four deputies and two civilian workers got fired after they ‘liked’ the Facebook page of a candidate running against their boss in the campaign for sheriff. They sued him for wrongful termination, on the grounds that the termination violated their first amendment rights of free speech. A U.S. District Attorney Judge in Virginia ruled that it did not violate their first amendment rights because a Facebook “like”does not constitute actual speech, and therefore have no protection under the first amendment, so in turn the terminations did not violate the first amendment.
- Shreya Zalani
The case I found was from an article titled ‘Truth and a Prize Emerge From Lies About Hoffman‘. The article talks about how The National Enquirer published false information about David Bar Katz, a playwright, claiming that he and Phillip Seymour Hoffman were lovers and free based cocaine. This was untrue and Mr. Katz filed a libel suit, which forced The National Enquirer to withdraw the article and publish an apology two days later, as well as pay for publication of false information.
I feel that newspapers and journalists should make sure that their information is correct before publishing any article. I also feel that Mr. Katz was right in filing a law suit against The National Enquirer.
Consumers are bringing a class action law suit against comScore for invasion of privacy. The company offered free downloads to consumers without alerting them to amount of private information the company would be able to access through the terms of service agreement. Since 2005, up to 10 million people have installed comScore software. This software has the potential to alter files and settings on the consumers’ computers. The company’s appeal to the lawsuit was denied and the case will proceed to trial.
It’s really scary to think about what terms of service actually entail. I hardly ever read them. I usually just scroll to the bottom of the agreement and click the yes I agree box. I never stopped to think about what kinds of information these companies have access to. User names and passwords are one thing, I don’t have much to hide in terms of scandalous secrets that, if revealed, would devastatingly alter my life. But my credit card information is a bigger deal to me. Not everyone is honest and identity theft is a big problem these days.
In 2011, the movie Captain America The First Avenger was released, and I have loved that movie ever since for multiple reasons. Not only do I like it because I am a bit of a dork when it comes to the Avengers, but because that movie revolved around the World War 2 era. And although it may sound and be a bit morbid, I found World War 2 to be the most interesting war I have learned about.
As for my all time favorite movie, I have come to love The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. This movie had multiple story lines revolving around one character, showing all the aspects of his life, ranging from love, to war.
And although I have come to own both of these movies in different formats, (DVD, Blu Ray Discs, HD Downloads), the first time I saw it was in the movie theaters because I was too impatient for them to come out on Dvd.
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button:
By: Brenda Romero
Bland V Roberts case: Can liking a Facebook page cost you your job?
People lost their jobs just because they liked their bosses opponent Facebook page.
This case dealt with the First Amendment but was overruled because liking someones page is not protected by the first amendment.
I don’t think that people should get fired for liking someone else’s page, what if they liked the opponents page to show good sportsmanship. I do think that people do need to be more careful about what they share on Facebook though because you never know if a future employer will be using your social networking sites as part of your background check.
Here’s a link to the site about the case:
I’ve used the internet for gaming and shopping before. When i was little I used to play a lot of flash games on the internet. I’ll even admit, even during high school when our class went to the computer lab, me and my friends would play games on the internet when the teacher wasn’t around. Sometimes our teacher would let us, only if our work is done. Recently around 1-2 years ago, i would just browse sneakers on ebay or other online webshops since i liked sneakers. I only bought about 1-2 pairs of shoes online, but i’ve consumed a lot of time just browsing sneakers online. Just window shopping from my computer really,
In the past, I have noticed the internet has come to consume a large chunk of my life. As a teenager, I would play an online game named Maplestory, which I would spend about eight or more hours a day alone playing that game. Because of the amount of time that was consumed by this game, I later began to neglect things such as my friends and family, seeing as how I had met so many people online I began to have a sense of camaraderie with them, which most likely derived from me spending so much time with them in game.
After some time, I realized I had essentially done everything I could do in game. I had defeated every boss, I had created one of the strongest characters in game, and I had realized how much my account was worth. I then decided to start to focus on school and sports more in my real life, and slowly began to drift away from what I feel was an addiction. Once I felt that I did not play this game anymore, I ended up selling all of my in game items for real USD. It was not until after I sold all of my hard earned in game items that I realized the amount of time I put into this game. Granted, I made about $14,000.00 with all of the things I sold, I still could have made a lot more money if I had put my time into something such as a minimum wage job.
Now that I look at the game, all I feel is nostalgia. It is not the same, and at the same time I am happy that it is in my past.
Link to Maplestory:
- Shreya Zalani
I spend a lot of time online and while I have never played online games or been to online dating sites, I do purchase items from websites. I buy textbooks since they are cheaper online as compared to stores. I don’t buy anything else online like clothes or other things because I like to see what I’m buying. In the case of books, it doesn’t make much difference but not in other things.
I had a friend who was an online gamer and she said that she used to spend most of her day on the internet. Although I couldn’t see any direct effects, I feel that staying in front of a computer screen would cause harm to her eyesight. She might also eat less frequently and not be very aware of what’s going on around her. It may also cause her coursework to pile up, affecting her grades. I think that she has limited her hours of playing online and makes time to do other things too.
By Helen Dao
The internet has its many uses such as keeping up to date with the latest news, research for academic work or personal work, dating, gaming, and shopping among other things, and most of the people I know, myself included, use the internet for these things. Some of these activities can become particularly addictive. Two things in particular that are particularly susceptible to addiction in my experience are gaming and social networking.
During my own addictive gaming phase, I’ve also met others who were as much attached to the keyboard and mouse as I was. Some used it as an escape from the stress of their personal lives and others have participated in online gaming purely for the joy of it. However, in both cases for some people, the gaming had become an addiction that negatively affected their academic work. For those that decided they needed to break the habit and refocus their attention to school, they broke their character equipment or gave access to their account away to someone else temporarily. Personally, I eventually stopped because my computer was no longer able to run the game properly. Others were able to simply leave the game or lessen their time on it out of sheer willpower. Other addictions that I and others I know have developed were on social networking sites and blogging sites such as Tumblr and Twitter. For these, people sometimes give access to their account to a trusted friend who will change their password.
by Isaac Velasquez
I tend to use the internet more for watching movies and listening to music. I do often buy things on Amazon because they have a huge selection and I can often find exactly what I am looking for. I am not on it for that long, I get bored of the internet kind of fast so i’ll get off and do something else. It’s funny but the only person I can think who spends an insane amount of time online is my mom. I find it funny because it was only about four months ago that she started to learn how to open a browser and type in a URL. She spends hours upon hours on YouTube looking up random videos. Sometimes she completely ignores me when she is focused on the screen. She tends to forget about everything else while she is looking at the videos she finds. I think its a little excessive but she I let it slide because she is just discovering all these new things.
I have definitely done online shopping along with online gaming. Currently right now I am playing NBA 2k14 on my PS4 online. It is fun to socially interact with people you don’t know in a competitive way. When I do online shopping, I am typically buying things from Amazon.com, for technologies and such. When I shop for clothes online, my two favorite website to shop off of is, Plndr.com and Jackthreads.com. Those two websites are very for urban clothing.
I had a cousin who was very addicted to online gaming. He would spend at least 14 hours a day on his computer playing World of Warcraft. For him it was a very addicting games because he had many friends who would play it too. It affected his life so much that he quit his job and he broke up with his girlfriend just so he can play the game. He slowly started giving up online gaming when his parents told him that it is taking over his life and they never really know who he was when he was playing the game. Slowly he started giving up the game to go to the gym to get back in shape and he found a new hobby that was much better and healthier, and that was working out.
My cousin’s online addiction reminded me of a post that I read online about a guy who was addicted to World of Warcraft. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/real-life-stories/internet-addict-tells-how-world-2098704
There are endless amounts of online shopping and gaming websites out there. I have visited countless of those shopping and gaming websites. A few of my favorite shopping websites are Gilt, Urban Outfitters, and American Eagle Outfitters. Online gaming websites have changed for me as I’ve gotten older, starting with MySpace‘s flash player games (a la Farmville), then games on Newgrounds , and presently, occasional sessions of Total War: Rome II via online gaming service Steam.
My cousin, unfortunately, is a video game addict. His brother and myself would point out how obsessive he is with the games, his inability to focus on anything else, and the financial realities of his gaming lifestyle. He gained over 100 pounds of weight over three years and foregoing a social life for video games. During a phone call with an online gaming service company, which was to complain about connectivity, the operator subtly called my cousin an addict by giving him the number for a gaming addiction hotline. He never called the hotline, but the shock of the conversation really put things into perspective for my cousin. Now with a steady social life and his graduation from San Jose State University later this year, I would definitely call him a recovering addict.
I do not us the internet for gaming or dating. I occasionally use to look up hotel room rates, to locate a store or doing comparison shopping. But I make my purchases in a brick and mortar store. I make reservations over the phone. The only site I have used with any regularity is the auto club AAA. hhtp://calstate.aaa.com/.
My family has an aversion to using the Internet for shopping, gaming and dating. I personally don’t care to use the Internet for the above items.
My coworkers will use the internet at work for making hotel reservations. I don’t know if they use it for gaming or dating.
One my coworkers from the book store said her nephew was addicted to internet games. He would play sixteen hours a day if his parents had allowed it according to her. In his case he grew out of it when he discovered that old stand by, girls.
My best friend, Jovi, uses Plenty of Fish. It’s a dating website. I wouldn’t say that Jovi is addicted to online dating but she does take full advantage of the access to people’s personal information that social media provides. She met her ex fiance on POF, and when things didn’t work out she had me add him on facebook and instagram so that she could “troll” his profiles and see who his new girlfriend was. It was a bit extreme but she isn’t the only one who uses social media sites to cyberstalk an ex. She’s even gone as far as to check out his new girlfriend’s pages. She hasn’t stopped the “stalking” or as she likes to call it “information gathering” behavior. I’m not sure she ever will. In fact, her new boyfriend happens to be one of my “regulars” at my bar, and one of my friends on facebook. He also happens to be a recent divorcee and just moved back from Florida, where his wife and daughter still reside. Needless to say, she hits me up for information all the time. I can’t say I blame her though. Especially since he lied to her about a hookup with one of my coworkers. Obviously, I think she should have higher standards for picking men, but I am guilty of checking up on an ex once or twice in the past, though not to the same extent.
My best guy friend, Eric, is a major gamer and is definitely addicted. He’s turned it into a career until a year ago when he took over his father’s business. He used to travel all around the country for Halo tournaments and even had some sponsors. He met the “girl of his dreams” online while gaming, and moved to Colorado to be with her. When that didn’t work out he met his next serious girlfriend online and moved to Hawaii to be with her. Now he’s back and doing well running his business, which has nothing to do with gaming. Anytime I visit him, he is constantly on Xbox live (at least I think that’s what it’s called), and he just purchased the new one, where is voice activated.
I am not addicted to shopping at all, but I do use the internet for some purchasing. I usually buy all my tickets for sporting events, concerts and comedy shows,book all my flights, hotels and rental cars, and rent or purchase my books online. I think the only clothing I’ve ever bought online have been jerseys and sports apparel that I couldn’t find locally because they are out of states teams. GO COLTS!!! (And PEYTON<3)
I love shopping on internet. To avoid waiting in line, shopping online is definitely the best choice. Some of my friends even develop a habit, checking the website such as slick deal every day, to get a good deal. Because they spend times online to look up some discount, they often save lots of money on shopping things from clothes to pans. They seem to get benefit from shopping online.
By Caitlyn Nurnberg
Personally I use the Internet very frequently for shopping, whether it be just to browse or that I’m actually looking for something. It is so much easer, although not as fun, than going out in search of that specific thing you are looking for because on the Internet you can look for that item in numerous different places or stores, and a lot of the time they have things in stock on the website that they wouldn’t have in the store. A lot of sites also have a variety of items so you don’t have to go to different places to get what you need like Amazon.com, or Wanelo.com which is a site that shows you items and then sends you to the website that sends that item when you click on it. I do not know anyone who has become addicted, or developed a time consuming habit, doing an activity on the internet.
I use the internet a lot but only because I like to surf the net, blog on tumblr, check my emails, and sometimes log into Facebook. I was never into any gaming sites, and I do not really trust sites where people can shop or even online dating. The only time I ever shop online is on the official stores like Hot Topic or Macy’s, but I can hardly trust some of the viewers on Ebay or even Amazon.
I do know someone who has develop a time-consuming habit when it comes to online games. My brother is those typical 15 year old teenage boys where he would literally sit all day on the couch, the laptop on his computer, playing games like Minecraft, Starbound, MapleStory and Trraria. He said it doesn’t affect his life, because he still gets good grades than most people, and claims that he is healthy and still fit. There are some days during the week where he has to exercise so he doesn’t stay on the internet all day.
Websites of the popular online game my brother plays is
MapleStory – http://maplestory.nexon.net/
Starbound – http://playstarbound.com/
Minecraft – https://minecraft.net/
BY : Brenda Romero
I don’t really use the internet to play games or go on dating sites. I rarely order things online because I rather see the items in person. My oldest sister would spend hours doing online shopping. It got to the point where she didn’t even notice that she was neglecting her priorities over shopping. She wouldn’t even shop for things that she really needed just random things that she thought were cool. The websites that she would spend most of her time and money were: http://www.luvocracy.com/ , a combination between Pintrest and online shopping, http://www.etsy.com/ , a do it your self store, and http://www.amazon.com/ . She really didn’t realize she had a problem until we as a family stepped in and had an intervention. We were mostly concerned about where she would stand financially if she didn’t stop her over spending. Now she has gotten more better at over shopping online and spends less time on the internet. When I asked her what helped her step away from online shopping she says, it was our concern for her that really opened her eyes to her problem.
My favorite movie of 2011-2012 was The Avengers. Being a comic book fan, especially a fan of Marvel Comics, The Avengers was a movie that i was really looking forward to before it came out. Me and my friends watched it on the day it came out, and in my opinion it delivered all of my expectations and lived up to its hype. My favoirite movie of all time would be Pulp Fiction. It is a clever movie that is very well put together (though scenes were done in chapters, and were not in order), well known for its dialogue, and has a lot of classic and memorable scenes and moments.
Description: Explores and shows many examples of gender stereotypes and gender roles in television/movies
Chapter 6 – Movies Chapter 9 – Television
Quiz Question – How are both men and women generally potrayed in media?
Answer: Women are usually submissive to men or stay at home and work around the house, while men are supposed to be extremely masculine and strong.
Description: Information and Statistics regarding how Social Media impacted the world
Chapter 2: Media Impact
Chapter 10, 12,13: Internet, and future chapters
Quiz Question: Facebook has so many users, that if it was a country, it would be the __ largest country on the planet.
Smoking in Movies
Description: The video talks about the affect smoking in movies has on our youth and the idea of rating movies “R” that contain the behavior.
Chapter 6: Movies
Quiz Question: What protects movies from being censored?
Answer: Freedom of Speech/Press
By Caitlyn Nurnberg
Description: This video gives exampled and explanations to the different types of syndication, and how and why it is useful in our society.
Chapter 6: Movies Chapter 10: Internet
Quiz Question: What is a common example of content syndication?
Answer: Comics in Sunday newspapers are in newspapers all around the country because the artists work is syndicated.
- Shreya Zalani
The video is called “How Young Is Too Young To Watch Television?“.
Description: This video deals with the impact of television on young children. It outlines the negative as well as positive effects that media has on children.
Chapters: Introduction to Media, Books, Recordings and Music, Television
Quiz Question: What are the effects of different media on children?
Answer: Television – negative effect, Books and Music – positive effect.
Description: A more in-depth look at how the newspaper was created as well as more facts and history of the newspaper. It’s a nice video because it gives more examples and stories about the history.
Chapter 4: Newspapers
Quiz Question: What was the first newspaper to use a crossword? Who and when was it created? It was also the first paper to put news on the front page
Answer: The first crossword puzzle was put in December 21, 1913 created by Arthur Wynne.