Winter 2014 class

winter2013

Around the table, from left: Stephen, Jon, Helen, Laiza, Eva, Gina, Brenda and Isaac. Standing in back: Ryan, Brian, Brandon, Victor, Nicolas, Brian, Francisco, Lindsey, Caitlyn, Shreya and Jim.

News writing class, fall 2013

Front row: Zhie Wei Ng, Li Wei, Kirsten Second: Cristian, Craig, Christopher Third: Wen, Andrea, Joshua, Adam, Lance Fourth: Rachel, Bryan, Jay, Adrian, Jessica, Supreet, Steven Back row: Jay, Matthew, Megan

Front row: Zhie Wei Ng, Li Wei, Kirsten
Second: Cristian, Craig, Christopher
Third: Wen, Andrea, Joshua, Adam, Lance
Fourth: Rachel, Bryan, Jay, Adrian, Jessica, Supreet, Steven
Back row: Jay, Matthew, Megan

Mass comm class, fall 2013

Carly, Kasha, Cody, Joh'Neil, Manuel, Alan, Monica, Erica and Bella

Carly, Kasha, Cody, Joh’Neil, Manuel, Alan, Monica, Erica and Bella

Feature writing class, winter 2013

Around table: Sara, Sally, Jannelle and Rajvir. In back: Anh Thi, Deeanne, Joshua, Jimmy, Ruben, Colin, Stephen, Kelsey, Jason and Kyle.

Around table: Sara, Sally, Jannelle and Rajvir. In back: Anh Thi, Deeanne, Joshua, Jimmy, Ruben, Colin, Stephen, Kelsey, Jason and Kyle.

Blog #11: Class Highlights

Francisco Alvarado

Throughout the quarter and throughout the pages of our textbook Mass Media in a Changing World,  I had quite a few “Aha” moments in which I found answers to questions (new and old), learned new concepts and phrases, and further developed my media literacy. One of these “Aha” moments was reading that the Yellow journalists of the 1890s forced the hand of the US government, and led to the declaration of the war against Spain in 1898. The media had enough power, even back then, to push the issues it wants.

Another “Aha” moment was when I read that in the average hour of format-style radio,  there are (approximately) 33 minutes of music and talk, 13.5 minutes of information, and 12 minutes of commercials. I’ve always felt that it was the music played for at least 45 minutes every hour, then I find out that it’s half of every hour! Everyone’s got to get paid I guess.

Another “Aha” moment was when I read that Public Relations departments, agencies, specialists, use a tactic named Trial Balloons when they want to gauge public opinion. They “leak” information regarding a major policy in government or a potential merger between companies.

Week 11: Class highlights

Man! There have been so many things that has opened my mind in this class. I have definitely learned a lot and my view of media is slowly changing. Before, I already thought I was aware of what was happening around me in the media but as this class went on, I found that there was so much more that goes into everything.

Media makes sense to me now.  I know that censoring something isn’t the way to do things. Everything should be laid out on the table so that people can make the choice. Eventually, I know they’ll come around. With censoring, I really feel that it will make people more curious than it should. I know that’s what happened to me. When my parents restricted something, I really went out of my way to try to find out what they’re hiding. People will always have curiosity and if that curiosity gets cut off, it’s going to come by 2 x’s bigger.

I realize that the first amendment is just so broad that many people can do and say what they want to express their opinion. That’s great, but at the same time I’m worried about all those who use that power t slander others.

I was also really shocked by Bowling for Columbine when the opening scene was that Michael could get a gun just for opening a bank account. Just how crazy. I’m blown away by this class.

Week 10: Media Ethics

I’m totally weirded out by the ethics that our media is using today. When watching Outfoxed and I saw that reporter just chumming it with President Bush.. it’s like wait what? Is that ethical? Can he just be casually talking about how his wife is hanging out with President Bush’s daughter?

It’s just so weird that the media has their own agenda nowadays. It seems as though, they don’t really care what or how their news gets out there. Just as long as it gets out.

I really hope that this can change soon. I hope to find more ethical people who know where the boundary lines are. It’s just getting crazy. For example, I read an article on the media lobbying complex where retired military analysts who work for a big corporation gets paid to go on the news and talk about their stance on nuclear power plants.

One man had the title Military Analyst but it didn’t say that he was also working for the corporation that would ultimately benefit from his opinion of pushing for more nuclear power. Saying that if more nuclear power plants are built then America can have more jobs. Seriously.. how crazy is that. I feel that, there’s so many ways for people to keep up with the news that the actual news / journalism industry is trying to keep up.

Week 9: Social Media Law

This image is using the techniques of beautiful people and slogan. They’re using slogan with the phrase “Let your beauty be seen”.

Then the ad is using beautiful people because the illustration show this man and woman with great skin complexion, clean cut clothing and fantastic smiles. No flaws or anything.

Week 8: Social Media Law

http://www.socialmedialawupdate.com/2011/12/articles/recent-media-law-cases/do-your-social-media-accounts-belong-to-your-business-why-worry-when-there-are-safeguards-you-can-take-now/

This article is about a company suing it’s past employee for rights to a twitter account. The twitter account was started by the employee on behalf of the company. But, the employee is now using the account for personal use.

I feel like it’s misappropriation because the employee knew that the twitter account is and was made for the company so why continue to use it for himself. If it reflects the values of the company, anything after could be viewed libel or skewed since he no longer works for them.

Week 7: Internet

The internet was almost a second lifeline for me. I once almost got lost in the virtual world when it first came out. All thanks to my friend Michael. He was obsessed. What’s crazy was that my brother, Michael and I used to play outside each and everyday. And once dial-up was getting faster, we could find Michael online playing DBZ or Neopets.

After a while, it’d just be my brother and I playing outside everyday while Michael took up all his free time using the internet to keep playing his games. It was getting to the point where he refused to do anything else but stay inside his room and play. I was honestly worried. After a while, high school started and he saw that he wanted to be outside again. He took up skateboarding and the rest is history. The internet no longer affected his life.

Week 11: Class Highlights

Throughout this quarter, this class has effected my media literacy. This class has taught me about the history many forms of media, what they do for the people, and the issues and controversies that came along with it. However, this class doesn’t change my view of media. I still have the same beliefs and views of media that I had when I walked into this class for the first time in the beginning of the Winter Quarter.  For quite a while, i believe that many media outlets don’t really serve the greater good of the people. It just tells us what we wanna hear.  This class did however, teach me to be more analytical of the information that the media puts out. My media literacy has improved since i feel like i can read between the lines now.

Week 9: Propaganda in Advertising

This ad by Cadillac uses both “Flag Waving” and “Transfer (Association)”. The ad mentions a lot of great things (such as Disney, Amazon, Wright Brothers, etc.) that have come out of American garages, and associates them with Cadillac cars, which are from American Garages like the many examples the ad has used. It is also a flag waving ad since it talks about the many great things to have come out of American Garages, implying that many of Cadillac’s compettitors aren’t that great since they aren’t from American Garages, which is patriotic.

Week 10: Media Ethics

Today, I think Media Ethics have hit an all time low. Because most news outlets today are owned by major conglomerates, I believe they all give you biased information. Most of the information media gives you is either black or white. Half of the information the media feeds you is based on liberal beliefs and ideals, and the other half is based on conservative beliefs and ideals. The fact that the Daily Show with Jon Stewart gives you more truthful information than many other major news outlets, and the fact that you can trust its information more than many news outlets is pretty sad. The Daily Show is just comedic, satrical news program that airs on Comedy Central. It doesn’t even air on major news networks like CNN, NBC, and Fox News, networks were you should be able to get reliable information since that is their purpose. Also, magazines don’t really help either. Most magazines tells people how to look, especially women, since they photoshop their cover models to the point it doesn’t even look like them anymore. It alters reality, especially for those women who actually want to look like them. Today media doesn’t serve for the greater good of the people, it just gives us what we want to see and hear, and not the information that we should have. And if they don’t tell you what you want to hear, then they try to manipulate you into having the beliefs they want you to have.

Week 2: Media Impact or Books

One of the first favorite books a had was Wayside School Gets A Little Stanger by Louis Sacher. It was one of my first favorite books i remember, since i remember reading this book over and over again as a kid, and the book was part of a trilogy, with this one in particular being the last. Nowadays it just serves as nostalgia. One of my other favorite books i have read was Flags of our Fathers by James Bradley. It is about a group of soldiers fighting in the Battle of Iwo Jima during WWII, and how they are remembered for raising the flag on Iwo Jima. It was my favorite book that i read in middle school, and it got me interested into knowing about the WWII since i found it to be pretty interesting. Because of this, i started playing Call of Duty a lot, since at the time they were about WWII. My last favorite book was I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action. It is literally my last favorite book, since its the last book i recall reading that i have enjoyed. I havn’t actually had a favorite book after this, i have been a “required reader” ever since.  It is an autobiography about Jackie Chan, and how he grew up in Hong Kong, and how he ended up becoming a famous actor. He was also one of my favorite actors growing up.

Blog Post# 11

by Isaac Velasquez

After completing this class my eyes were opened to all the things that happen behind the scenes that we usually don’t see. A lot of the history of all the mediums that we learned about was really interesting. It was also interesting to see how every invention of media affected the medium before it. I have a better understanding now of what different things mean. I now also know a good amount of history and controversies that are associated with every aspect of media.

I still view media that same but now I have a better sense of media literacy to where I can dissect the images more carefully and understand what it is trying to do.  The type of advertisement methods that we learned about really changed the way I saw media. It was really interesting to see how companies try to play with human emotions to try and sell their products.

Week 11: Class Highlights

While in Journalism class, there were a few “Aha” moments, which really caught me off guard. My first “Aha” moment was when I learned about how much the media uses scapegoats. This is something I observed during Brandon’s presentation in which people used Grand Theft Auto 5 as a scapegoat for their poor judgements. This is something people seemed to do in the Bowling for Columbine incident where Marilyn Manson was blamed by parents for the horrific incident. Another “Aha” moment in journalism was when I learned how the media edits their photos so make them more appealing towards their audiences. I learned this when it was pointed out in class how the image of the Boston Bombing was edited to appeal more to certain readers. And lastly, my third favorite “Aha” moment was when I did my own research paper and presentation and discovered that reality television actually does have a profound effect on the behaviors of teenagers. It actually alters the way the act and the way they perceive things, which leads them to act out more than kids who do not watch would.

Week 10: Media Ethics

I feel that the media has a pretty poor sense of ethics. They seem to post whatever will catch attention, and twists stories to appeal to a certain audience or to get more attention than they normally would. One way they practice unethical behaviors is that they alter pictures and videos through photoshop or programs such as those in order to portray a different concept rather than the truth. The way the images of the Boston marathon bombing were edited were a great example of how unethical behaviors mislead people. People took more of an interest in that image because there was more blood than there actually was, but at the same time some companies edited the image to make it more appealing to those who could not stand such a gory image by replacing a severed leg from the image. Although the media has certain rules that they follow in order to be considered “Ethical,” the practices that they generally follow in order to attempt to draw more attention to their stories are what make them unethical.

Week 8: Media Law

Media Law; Brian Ho

A media law case that I am going to be briefly describe is Capital Record Inc vs Thomas-Rasset. Defendant Appllee Jammie Thomas-Rasset was found legally responsible in district court for illegally distributing copyrighted music over the Internet. Capital Record Inc owned many catalogs of music and Thomas-Rasset was caught distributing 24 songs that had its rights owned by Capital Record itself. In my opinion, I felt that Capital Record Inc had the right to pursue legal actions towards Thomas-Rasset because Thomas-Rasset did not ask for Capital Record Inc if they can share the songs or not and the songs was protected by rights.

 

http://www.iplb.org/articles/case-survey-capitol-records-inc-v-thomas-rasset

Week 10: Media Ethics

Week 10; Brian Ho

These I feel like Media Ethics relies on the truth from journalist and news reporters. They are the front of the news because they document it along with reporting it live to their viewers. Also, there are many bias news groups like Fox, CNN and many others out there that just want to talk about their views and not hear upon others. There is a lot of censorship to now. Many people are not able to let their voice be heard so they have to rely on the internet where it is much easier to publish an opinion piece, rather then saying it in public and get in trouble for it. Also, these days there are many advertisements in media sources so sometimes it is overwhelming with them. Money is generated through advertisements, so I can see why there a lot of advertisements swarmed with them.

Week 9: Propaganda in Advertising

Week 9; Brian Ho

The two propaganda techniques that I am going to be focusing on is appeal to fear and appeal to authority. The advertisement that I chose was a Nazi Propaganda poster that was in 1936 that shows a Nazi soldier in a medieval armor holding a shield and sword. The purpose of the poster was to show fear to the Soviets while letting the Soviets know that the Nazis is the main authority that they should listen to. It does show appeal to fear because during the 1936, the Nazi army was slowly rising to be the top in the world while all their propaganda posters were meant to show authority.

 

http://www.bytwerk.com/gpa/posters/bauern36.jpg

Class Highlights

- Shreya Zalani

Out of the many Aha Moments, here are three that are important to me.

1. Chapter 1: The Audience is the Final Arbiter of meaning – While I knew that the audience is an important part of mass media and communication, it was interesting to note the audience’s large impact. I was surprised to note how the meaning of posters changed because of what the audience thought of them.

2. Chapter 3: Codex, Chapbooks and Dime novels – Reading is one of my most favorite things to do and finding books for cheap and books that were readily available is sometimes a problem. It was interesting to see how early books were and how books that sold for little money helped spread literacy and entertainment.

3. Chapter 5: Hand painted illustrations in early magazines – In present day printing, there is such a large quantity of printing done at one time that it is hard to think of even printing a document one by one to have multiple copies. Learning about hand-painted illustrations made me appreciate the hard work and talent that went into each one.

Week 11: Class Highlights

Class Highlights

Brian Ho

I learned a lot in Journalism. What I learned that I will definitely continue to use is media literacy and perception. I learned that I can easily be persuaded by media either to buying a particular product or siding with a situation like a presidential election.

I still view media the same way as I always do, but I am just a little more cautious on the media trying to perceive me. After watching OutFoxed, I realized that the media always choose a side. There is not an equal news station that speaks on both views, it is either one side or the other.

I still believe the First Amendment is really important for media impacts. It is important for everyone to have those rights, other wise no one would have freedom of expression to voice their opinions, especially the media.

Week 11: Class Highlights

Class Highlights

I learned a variety of lessons that involved media in class. I view the media somewhat in a different way. Before this class, I knew a little bit knowledge about our media, but because of this class, it broadened my mind. For example, I always knew the news could be a bit sketchy, but I didn’t realize that they can curve their announcements so that the audience can view a topic in a different way. For example, FOX news wanting to make Democrats look dumb and Republicans smart. I knew that the First Amendment is quite controversy especially since it’s freedom of media. But in my opinion, it’s still a problem that the media is taking advantage of this where it’s probably too much freedom of speech.

Week 11: Class highlights

Class Highlights Brian Rose

I had a pretty good grasp of media basics when I started the class. There were some areas that I had not given much thought and had an aha moment.

1. Is bias creep, I was aware of it but I had not really given it much thought. When I read the papers or listen to the news I think about now.

2. Net neutrality: I did my research paper on neutrality so I had to bring myself up to speed on the topic. I had though about net neutrality as technical issue. My research made me aware of the first amendment/ free speech issues are effected by who controls access to internet. Control of this access is more important than the technical aspects of the problem.

3.Plagarism a allows associated with directly taking someone else’s work and claiming it a has your own. I had never thought about using the idea without giving credit to the author or source. This comes from over 40 years of reading and absorbing ideas. And I would not think to give the person or source credit if I read about twenty years ago and it stuck in the back of my mind.

Over all I am more aware of the interconnectedness of the media now. Net neutrality and its first amendment implications are the biggest thing I take aware from this class. I have become more aware of I how put together sentences and paragraphs. I can write a double compound sentence. I learned how write thesis statement in high school. But this is the first time I had had defend my thesis since I graduated from San Jose State in 88. And trying to understand the APA style of citations. It was not required when I was at State.

Class Highlights

Lindsey Lopez

This class has increased my media literacy.  I don’t believe that I was naive before this class, at least not about the impact that media has on society.  I knew that media influences us far more than we would like to believe.  I also knew that media outlets distort reality in ways that will likely increase their own profit.  I’ve always been skeptical of stories I read online and I usually check for facts and consult multiple sources before accepting the validity of a source.  However, I didn’t realize the potential power that I might have in accessing the media.  I knew of the potential power that media outlets give to other people but I never thought of harnessing this power for myself.  Internet technology and mass media are incredible tools for reaching out and sharing valuable information with people across the world.  Many people believe that they cannot make a difference in someone else’s life. Recently, I’ve discovered that is not true, and mass communication is way more powerful than the average person realizes.

A 6 year old girl, Jennifer Kranz, from Gilroy, CA died on February 12, 2014 from DIPG.  This is a type of cancer in the brain.  I had the privilege of meeting her once, a month or two after she was diagnosed.  The doctors predicted that she would only live 9 months.  Sadly, she only made it four.  Her mother started website and a blog, Love for JLK, to raise awareness.  I started following it.  She posts daily, and her writings are heart wrenching and thought  provoking.  Sometimes, they are hard to read, but what she has taught me, along with this class, is that you do not have to be a person of prestige, or wealth, or education to impact the lives of others.  So many people in our community have reached out and are trying to help not only the Kranz family, but the families of other children who have cancer.  These are people who have never met the Kranz family but are so touched by the blog that they are determined to join the fight against children’s cancers. One shocking fact that I learned from her page is that almost all of the funding for cancer research goes to adult cancers.  The impact that this family, that this mother, has had on the community and on me, is uplifting and inspiring.  She also raises awareness and money for other causes and is in the process of starting a non profit.  Her story, is a perfect example of the power that mass media has.

http://love4jlk.org/

“Aha” moments

By Caitlyn Nürnberg

Three things of the “Aha” moments that I wrote down from this quarter were: that the audience is the final arbiter of meaning of the media (chapter 1), saying things like video games and music leads to violent behavior is often considered a ‘cop out’ (chapter 2), and women’s magazines have always portrayed what the times dictated was the ‘ideal’ woman (chapter 5). For my first moment, it was interesting to me that even if something in the media says one thing, if the audience does not interpret it the way it was meant to be interpreted it doesn’t mean anything, because in the end it is the way that the audience sees or thinks about things in the media that really defines the media. The whole topic of my second ‘aha’ moment was interesting to me when it came to believing that games like Grand Theft Auto led to violence more often than not. Personally I thing that it is definitely a cop out because there must be other factors to ‘making’ people violent than a video game. For my third and final ‘aha’ moment, it was interesting for me to look at the pictures that the textbook had of the first few editions of magazines like Women’s Home Journal and see that even then they had pictures of the ‘ideal’ woman and had articles on how to help make yourself look more like her. Even then there was a standard for what a beautiful woman was, it was just different from what it is today.

Week 11: Class Highlights

I improve my media literacy through learning how media deliver messages in Jour 2. I used to trust all the content of newspaper ; however, I learned that news paper are not accurate all the time. So I start to read the same report from different sources to insure the accuracy. I also realize that media are influencing people more and more today, especially social media. Social media grows incredibly  fast that it has become a significant part of life for most of the people.

Johnathan Preston Blog 6

I’ve used the internet to shop and game often. I also know quite a few people who use the internet to do both as well. Fortunately, the people I know along with myself, have never been “addicted”. When I was enlisted in the Air Force I was stationed overseas for nearly 7 years and could rarely find malls/shops that either fit my price range or style. Every so often I would go to a few websites and do some shopping. The process was easy and helpful, although I would’ve rather been able to go into a store and see the items and try them on.

Johnathan Preston Blog 9

I believe the status of media ethics is strong in the grand scheme of things. There are some individuals who push the envelope on major topics but that’s their right. There are certain areas that could be improved though. For instance, journalist and correspondents that strictly say things  for shock value. I feel that people in that position should only report what they genuinely feel betters the community around them. Just saying outlandish and negative viewpoints for the purpose of ratings is completely irresponsible.

Johnathan Preston Blog 8

GEICO ADS

Ad nauseam

GEICO uses the half truth method by saying that a 15 min call could save you 15% or more. If you’re one of the many people who watch television you’ve definitely have heard this line over and over again. People hearing this commercial may start believing that they’ll automatically save 15% by switching their insurance company.

Half-truth

The Half truth technique GEICO uses fools some people into believing that everyone saves 15% by switching. In reality only people who meet certain criteria apply for the discounted coverage.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWBhP0EQ1lA

Johnathan Preston Blog 7

My case is about Courtney Love’s libel case with her former attorney. Love posted on Twitter she was, “….(expletive) devastated when Rhonda J Holmes Esq of san diego was bought off”. Love originally hired Holmes to represent her during a fraud case involving her late husbands estate. Holmes sued because she believed the tweet along with other statements the singer made about her caused substantial damages to her reputation and business. Love was found non guilty and avoided having to pay $8 million. Holmes’ side was disappointed in the decision but satisfied that her reputation has been cleared. This was the first libel case involving a tweet, but I’m sure more are on the way.

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/courtney-love-wins-twitter-libel-case/

No More Movie Ratings- Johnathan Preston

In this research paper I will aim to convince readers that theaters, or the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) for that matter, should no longer enforce the movie ratings. I will be going in to detail later on in the paper using sources from Rodman (2012), Ebert (2000), Svetkey/Entertainment Weekly (1994), and Libaw/ABCNews (2013). However, to begin I will focus on giving a brief background of this issue, and then aim to explore what you could consider the “worthlessness” of the rating system.

             Founded in 1922 the MPAA have been developing and establishing a voluntary system that classifies motion pictures. However, children of all ages have been able to go view movies through trickery or through members of older ages. Now with the ever-evolving advances of technology it has become almost impossible to enforce the ratings on movies. Quite simply, if someone wants to see a movie there’s only a few things preventing the possibility; the lack of funds to afford going to the theater to partake in the event, or the lack of Internet accessibility. With numerous sites available to download or watch new movies it could be argued more of a burden on the pockets of Hollywood than the worry of the impression a movie may have on our youth. The seemingly invisible line the MPAA has drawn has become more laughable than enforceable. Not only is the system easily avoidable, but also the criterion on which it’s based is questionable. For example, the MPAA urge parents to be cautious if their child is going to a PG-13 rated movie; yet parenting itself is conducted on an individual basis, so the classification can seem unfair as ultimately what is ‘cautious’ to one parent is acceptable to the next. The idea a room of individuals should be afforded the opportunity to decide what’s considered ‘right’ or appropriate to all age groups seems a bit asinine.

In the book, Mass Media in a Changing World (Chapter 6, pg. 177), Rodman discusses how movie ratings were established by the movie industry to avoid government censorship in 1922. A few years later ‘Motion Picture Production Code’ (MPPC) was established to officially put in place rules set by Will Hays, an elder in the Presbyterian Church. The industry sanctionedHays to delay the release of films until producers complied with his demands. During this period many different rules were put into effect. For example, movies had to refrain from any reference to sex or sexual activity, any mention of breastfeeding, or even the agony of childbirth. Upon the formalization of the MPPC the rules became more subjective and limiting. For example, in a bedroom scene where one bed was shown with a man and a woman, both actors were required to have one foot on the floor. Some films went away from the one foot grounded rule and decided to combat the rule by placing separate beds in the room instead. The Hays rule also forbade producers from disrespecting the government with negative portrayals as well as not allowing the ‘bad guy’ in films to get away with criminal activities. Hay’s rules changed the direction of many movies of the time and also could be directly blamed for sullying the outlook of moviegoers and distorting society around him. Today directors, actors, and production companies are blamed for their involvement in the portrayal of negativity shown on TV and movie screens alike, and we compare the violence and sex shown on different mediums for the actions carried out in the real world we live in. Can we not use that same logic for the unrealistic exploits the Hay’s rules implied? The idea a married couple wouldn’t share the same bed, or everyone should be in agreement with the government’s views are unrealistic. Hell, even the Bible speaks of how childbirth is meant to be painful for women. In some ways he was denying Americans the opportunity to explore other concepts brought forward by the talented and creative writers and directors of these movies. Films such as Moon is Blue (1953) and The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) directed by Otto Preminger were released without the approval of the MPPC. Preminger’s films would gain tremendous notoriety and success both financially and critically. These films would lead to the demise of the MPPC and introduction of the debacle of today’s current system established in 1968.

To better educate myself on the matter I read the Classification and Rating Rules Guide. The content of the twenty-three-page document ranges from the criteria for the rating of a movie, to the selection standards of the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA) members. Some of the major and more interesting facts I pulled from the document were: each member of the Rating Board must be a parent, raters children must be between the ages of five and fifteen upon entry to the board and must dismember from the board when all their children have reached twenty-one. The idea of this was to ensure the MPAA is getting the perspective of knowledgeable parents and what they believe is suitable for children. According to the rules, the raters must also remain unanimous to protect against pressure from individuals of the public, producer, and others affiliated with the motion pictures. The following sections layout the template for each rating: G-General Audiences. All Ages Admitted, PG-Parental Guidance Suggested. Some Material May Not Be Suitable for Children, PG-13-Parents Strongly Cautioned. Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Children Under 13, R-Restricted. Children Under 17 Require Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian, and finally NC-17-No one 17 and Under Admitted. One major issue seems to be the thin line between NC-17 and R ratings.  Most studios shy away from NC-17 because of its low profit margins and limiting fan base.

Roger Ebert, a well-known movie critic, calls for a more realistic ratings system. In his journal he writes there should be five categories, ”G: Suitable for all, PG-13: Some content may not be appropriate for younger children, R: No one under 17 without parent or guardian, A: Adults only, and X: Pornography.” His reason behind the change stems from the wayward manner films are rated by the MPAA. He goes on to compare Coyote Ugly (2000) and Almost Famous (2000) to the cookie cutter rules of the Association. Coyote Ugly was rated PG even though the movie glorified the objectivity of women who sexually danced atop bar counters for tips but “because there is technically no nudity” the movie dodged a higher rating. Meanwhile Almost Famous was destined to receive an R rating because of it’s irrelevant nudity, language, and negative portrayal of drug use. The MPAA failed to see the depiction of a teenage boy navigating through the tough life on the road during a rock tour with the support of his mother. The obvious matter in all of this is the protection of our youth undoubtedly, but are we really under the impression today’s teenagers don’t know these words already? Certainly, in Ebert’s generation and in a constantly maturing world teenagers have seen exposed body parts through courses of sexual education or daily life occurrences. Now, it is important to point out I’m not saying we should bare all and immediately emerge our children in nude images, conversely I do believe in the proper plot a teenager can learn from the acts of someone figuring out what’s right from wrong from a film. As Shawn McReedy simply said after being questioned on his opinion by Libaw of ABCNews, “What else is there to go see? Any movie worth going to is R-rated.” Do we really expect our teens to only watch and learn from Disney movies? We are passed the point of musical teapots and snowmen relating to the typical American teen.

I’m aware the ratings system was created to protect filmmakers’ freedom of speech and avoid censorship, but at what point is responsibility given back to the viewer. Creator of the current system and former President of the MPAA, Jack Valenti recognized the inconsistency of the system declaring, “Violence is harder to catalog than sensuality…There either is copulation or there isn’t…But it’s hard to measure gradations of violence. John Wayne hitting the beaches at Iwo Jima and mowing down 2,000 people–how do you equate that with a fellow being fellated? It’s pretty difficult.” (Entertainment Weekly) If it’s that difficult, why not put control into the hands of loving, responsible parents and guardians? ABCNews reported the FTC’s undercover survey of close to 300 theaters proved almost 50% of unaccompanied 13-16 year olds were able to buy tickets and attend R movies. The study also showed those unable to purchase the tickets still found ways of getting around the rule, either by getting older sibling or friends to purchase them, or buying PG-13 or lower rated film to get into the theater and simply walking into the R-rated picture. Let’s put an end to the ridiculousness and move on from this overbearing system.

week 11: Class Highlights

By: Brenda Romero

Before Jour 2 I had little knowledge of the media around us and how much it influences us. I guess ,I can say that I have more of a knowledge of my media literacy. I could always decipher what I was watching accurately , but now I actually know that the act of deciphering what’s in the media is called media literacy. Something else that I have taken from this class is not trusting all of the news outlets. I have more of an understanding of which TV stations are biased and how to analyze them. For example, I am one of those people who don’t really watch the news and when I do I just turn on Fox news. Even though I have always known that Fox news is biased to the conservative view, I now take their criticism with a skeptical eye. I have also learned how important it is for a journalist to know and follow the First Amendment rights. Over all, I have learned to be more aware that somethings are more opinion bases then facts. I should always fact check everything.

Media Ethics

- Shreya Zalani

I feel that the media today is much more ethical than in the past. The transparency that comes with information being readily available on the internet does to a certain extent ensure that news sources provide with the truth. However, there are instances of when news sources have given false information to the people. Press hoaxes – which are purposeful deceptions of the public – are still present today. This is very unethical. A few years ago, I watched a news report on a channel that supported the view that the world would end in 2012. The news piece was highly sensationalized and they anchors and reporters even provided “evidence” to support their false claims. This incident made me wary of news channels and made me think that I should always check more than one source for information.

Week 10: Media Ethics

My Views

I find the media to be clever. They know what to say and what to show to make us, the viewers, sway to a certain direction they want us to go. For example, with FOX News. No doubt that station wants the democrats to look bad, and glorify republicans in a way. It’s kind of a bummer because some of the viewers are not educated with the knowledge that what they are seeing could be manipulative. Same goes for newspapers and magazines, because newspapers can be tabloids and spread nasty rumors about locals, and women’s fashion magazines kind of influence our society with the media’s definition of beauty. I find it very annoying when I turn on the local news and see them talk about a certain celebrity, as if it’s any of our business. But then again, they have to do what they got to do to keep us interested.

Media ethics

Working for a magazine, I am keenly aware of ethics. Ethical guidelines provide a standard for someone working the media. My religion shapes most of my views on ethics. I have both Absolutist and situational ethics. Rawl’s “Veil of ignorance” as bin my guiding principle with out me know about him until taking Mass Comm. While Aristotle’s the “Golden Mean” as been guiding me in most of my world views.

As a journalist one should work to be fair to all people and to give there side of a story a fair and open hearing. When I covered events for La Voz and their were plenty of times when I had diametrically opposed views from the people I was speaking with. It can be hard at times to keep ones own views from creeping into a story. A journalists views and opinions should be left to the opinion page. That is how the Wall Street Journal works.

Professional guidelines that lay out prescriptive and proscriptive codes give a journalist a framework for their job. If their is a conflict of interest my duty to society and personal conscience come first. Followed by profession and organization.

A journalist should always be accountable to his reading public.

Week 10: Media Ethics

Media are delivering message to public faster through internet. They also have more access to all kinds of information. To attract people’s attention, media tend to focus on reporting violence and sex which presents a ugly world;however, today’s Media ethics are getting better. I do not have much opinion about today’s media ethic except the paparazzi who stock celebrities and their child.

Blog #10: Media Ethics

Francisco Alvarado

I’m not the biggest fan of media ethics, in its current state. The medium with the worst ethics, in my opinion, is Television. Advertising has little regulation, news shows run what seems to be the most brutal and disgusting reports every day, and the various kinds of news shows, ESPN and Fox News for example, blow minor occurrences out of proportion, wrecking lives and swaying opinions day in and day out. With the rise of social media outlets, television studios take the latest rumor or trending topic and make them into official reports. The media creates so many psuedo-events that what they call news has become questionable. It almost seems like there are two kinds of news now, factual reports and television news. Despite my great appreciation of the First Amendment, I feel government should step in and establish explicit regulations for television news reporting.

week 10: Media Ethics

By: Brenda Romero

  In today’s media, I don’t think that some journalist and other media outlets follow the ethic guidelines. News is supposed to inform us about what is happening around us. Now we have more opinion based news than actual news. Today’s media is solely focused on what stories or the delivery of a story, could generate more viewers. Conflict of interest also plays a huge role in this, for example we saw how fox only reports things that go along with their conservative views. Another thing that has shaped media ethics is duty to one organization or firm. Some journalist might be persuaded to only tell the side of the story that would make their boss look good.  Many journalist probably fear that they might get blacklisted if they don’t agree or follow the beliefs of their boss. I think that the audience has an overall affect on the way news and the media is delivered. If we the viewers weren’t so focused on the popular entertainment stories , that are not important, then we would actually get real news.

Dangers of Bitcoin

 Francisco Alvarado

Hacker’s Delight

For countless decades there have been a great number of individuals searching for a way to make their money anonymous, exempt from taxes, and untraceable. Men and women, young and old, rich and poor, individuals of questionable reputations have searched for a solution to the possibility of “secret” money. With the advent of the world wide web and open-source software, innovative developers have created millions of new web applications and web tools. Among these creations is the cryptocurrency, or electronic currency. Although there are many different forms of electronic currencies, for this paper I will be focusing on Bitcoin, a rather new and popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin and the other cryptocurrencies are making headlines in the economic sector, but are these electronic currencies making the internet a much more dangerous place?

Positive Aspects of Bitcoin

Before examining the dangers of Bitcoin, I will first discuss the positive aspects of the digital currency. The idea of an anonymous form of money is not new, but the creator(s) of the Bitcoin software has taken this idea and given it a modern application. Launched on January 3, 2009 (Plassaras, 377-407), Bitcoin was founded by a mysterious individual or group of individuals only known as Satoshi Nakamoto (McCormick 23). The software is designed to produce two encryption keys whenever a transaction is made, one public key and one private key (Plassaras 377-407). The public key is visible in a public ledger that shows unit transactions so that units are not sold more than once, in order to avoid counterfeit deals. The private key is for the unit owner’s personal usage for later transactions and storage. This dual key system, plus a digital timestamp server, that Bitcoin implements provides security in exchanges and creates a kind of public accountability against counterfeit deals. Bitcoin’s user anonymity and security are not the only benefits of the currency.

A key aspect of the cryptocurrency is that it does not depend on a system of banks or government backing in order to operate. The Bitcoin software generates new units, when users “mine” for coins. This “mining” consists of users solving particular mathematical equations as part of the process. Once solved, the user receives 50 new bitcoins to do as they please (Plassaras 377-407). Although there is currently no finite amount of bitcoin units in the world, the software is designed to cease generating new units in the year 2025 (Plassaras 377-407). The idea behind this design is to create scarcity in bitcoin units, much like the gold standard, and causing the price of a single unit to increase tremendously. Government-backed systems of currency are susceptible to countless factors, including corruption and reckless spending. User purchases and exchanges are what drive the bitcoin markets. The absence of government oversight is also attractive to users because Bitcoin, being a peer-to-peer network, is interaction between users only. For all its attractive qualities, however, the Bitcoin market is an incredibly volatile place.

Negative Aspects of Bitcoin

There are quite a few factors that worry users and critics of the cryptocurrency, chief among these concerns is cyber attacks. Our textbook Mass Media in a Changing World 4th Edition defines a hacker as “one who uses programming skills to gain illegal access to computer networks or files” (Rodman 287). It is these hackers who make not only the internet a dangerous place, but now have compromised many Bitcoin marketplaces (Dougherty FP12). Just this past weekend the world’s largest Bitcoin marketplace Mt. Gox– based in Japan– filed for bankruptcy protection after “losing” 850,000 units, the total value of these units estimated to be $500 million (techland.time.com). The company believes they were the victims of a cyber attack in which hackers stole the bitcoins. There is no nation that recognizes bitcoins as a real currency, only nations that are friendly to the currency. This is a problem for unit owners because their assets receive no loss-protection if their bitcoins are lost or stolen. Hackers have left numerous users in financial ruin following cyber attacks on their personal computers or wallet services.

Legal businesses that use Bitcoin are not the only ones vulnerable to cyber attacks. The anonymous underground market for illegal goods and services Silk Road 2.0 was hacked this past month. The market, which only accepts bitcoins for purchases, lost an estimated $1.7 million in user units because of a cyber attack by someone or a group of individuals who posed as multiple users throughout the marketplace and the associated forums (economist.com). The Silk Road marketplace and similar markets have brought attention to Bitcoin for usage by criminal organizations to promote and carry out their businesses with the untraceable currency. As a part of my research for this paper, I went into the darknet, or deepweb (hidden internet), and found several of these secret marketplaces after a considerable amount of time. Of the four markets I entered (Agora Market, Outlaw Market, Silk Road 2.0, Deepbay), each one did transactions with bitcoins only. One difference, however, is that the Outlaw market asks users to pay with third-party wallet services instead of holding user currency.

What I found in all these markets were endless listings of illegal drugs ranging from vicodin and heroin to cocaine and ecstasy. I even found listings for ayahuasca, a mixture of different leaves and shrubs that contain DMT, a naturally occurring psychedelic compound. I also saw listings for hackers for hire. They offered to hack Facebook accounts, Twitter accounts, tracking cell phone activity, and harvesting email accounts. I did not see any listings for assassinations, as is rumored to be found on these markets. It is believed that Ross Ulbricht, the man thought to be the first Silk Road’s administrator, posted listings for the assassinations of multiple individuals (economist.com). Perhaps I did not dig deep enough in the markets. The criminal underworld has become incredibly proficient in computing, using these skills to make their illegal actions much more difficult for law enforcement agencies worldwide to detect and prevent.

Bitcoin, and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, have become a polarizing subject among those informed on the topic. There is a sizeable number of Bitcoin “evangelists” who truly believe that the currency is the future of global economics. Bitcoin and similar forms allow users to make purchases and execute trades outside the shadow of big business and government authorities and the biggest factor that dictates prices are the users themselves. But as Bitcoin becomes more popular, government regulation is sure to come, regulation being the last thing users wish to see.

Conclusion

Regulation is needed, however, because the uses for bitcoins now lie on a scale of normal to highly illegal. Bitcoin exchange markets need to be held accountable when cyber-theft occurs or when they lose unit files. The usage of bitcoins is making the internet a more dangerous place. Criminals are using the currency to efficiently and anonymously give or receive payment for their illegal actions. Shady individuals are always looking for tools that provide anonymity and Bitcoin is the latest weapon added to the arsenal. Although the Bitcoin community is relatively small, the more it increases the greater number of potential victims. Bitcoin is changing the internet. In some ways it is great, but I believe that the negatives associated with the currency far outweighs the good. When child pornographers, assassins, drug cartels, and cyber-terrorists are paid in untraceable money, there is no need for this kind of system.

References

Rodman, George, Mass Media in a Changing World Fourth Edition, (2012). Ch. 10, pg. 287, 2012.

Plassaras, Nicholas, Regulating Digital Currencies: Bringing Bitcoin within the Reach of the IMF, (2013) Chicago Journal of International Law, pg. 377-407,

McCracken, Harry, Mt. Gox: What Happened, (March 3, 2014) Retrieved from techland.time.com/2014/03/03/what-happened-to-mt-gox/

The Silk Road, Reborn, (February 15, 2014) Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/international/21596561-it-still-possible-get-line-online-silk-road-reborn,

Judah, Sam, Untraceable Money Supply is Popular on the Black Market, (2013). Financial Times (London,England), NN pg. 3,

Mass Media and its Effect on Viewer Knowledge

Mass Media and its Effect on Viewer Knowledge

Helen Dao

De Anza Community College

Abstract

The primary medium of mass communication has changed over the years as technological advancements are being made. Effectively utilizing the medium is of crucial importance to gaining political ground as well as delivering information crucial for the public to make intelligent decisions. However, the apparent ideological biases associated with certain news networks today may impede the viewers’ processing of information and may inhibit them from making intelligent decisions. The key to successful usage of media involves not one or the other, but rather a balance of both aesthetic and substance.

The success of Franklin Delano Roosevelt

            In the 1930s, radio was not yet widely used but was on the rise to popularity and during this time, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took advantage of the new medium that would not only help him win the hearts of the American people but also change the course of American history (2005, pp. 89-106). Franklin Delano Roosevelt was widely considered to be the master of radio and during his terms, Roosevelt was able to win all presidential elections without much support from the print media and, on the contrary, won even with the print media publishing campaigns against him (Rodman, 2012). In one instance, in a pamphlet titled Jewish Ancestry of Franklin Delano Roosevelt that was passed around shortly before the 1940 presidential election, Roosevelt was falsely represented to be of Jewish descent alongside anti-semitic commentary in an attempt to damage his public image in light of the coming presidential election. The pamphlet states, “Even a hasty perusal of this factual document convinces one as to President Roosevelt’s Jewish ancestry. From the viewpoint of eugenics, it explains his natural bent toward radicalism. It shows why he has given hundreds of so-called Liberals, Socialists and Communists powerful positions in the national government. It reveals the origin of the sinister spirit which today animates the White House. It proves unmistakably, that the Roosevelt Administration offers a biological as well as a political problem (1998, pp. 327-335).” By his third attempt at running for president, he was already extremely popular and was viewed as being responsible for bringing the country out of the Great Depression while his opponent, Wendell Willkie, was a business leader who had never been elected to public office before, so Roosevelt’s victory was no surprise (Rodman, 2012).

Much of Roosevelt’s success before, during, and after the war was thanks to his masterful use of radio broadcasting. According to the 1940 U.S. census, 82.4 of American households, not counting businesses, owned and used a radio, making it a popular and very widely used medium (2004, pp. 179-195). Radio was able to bring life to Roosevelt’s speeches but the visual aspect was still left to the audience’s imagination; therefore, the audience was able to hear his distinct voice and the tone in which he speaks, but were not able to see his body, disabled by polio, relegated to a wheelchair (2005, pp. 89-106). The methods that Roosevelt employed with his homey fireside chats on the radio where indeed and unsurprisingly propagandistic with the way he addressed his audience as “friends” and the image he’s built of himself as a relatable everyman (Duncombe, 2008, pp. 28-29). The rhetoric used touched his audience and made them feel as though they knew him personally, thus earning him popularity with the people (2005, pp. 89-106). Despite the propagandistic nature of this presentation however, to today’s listener, his speeches to the public are surprisingly informative. In his addresses to the nation, technical details of financial policy, global trade, and other issues at the time were explained without the use of technical jargon in such a way that made it easier for the average American citizen to understand, conforming to his propagandistic style without sacrificing substance (Duncombe, 2008, pp. 28-29). His method of speech delivery and selection of content encouraged discussion rather than mere adulation from his audience. What all the publicity efforts in favor of Roosevelt had shown was, as public relations historian Stuart Ewen argues, “Unspoken, but evident, was a determined and unaccustomed faith in ordinary people’s ability to make sense of things (Duncombe, 2008, pp. 28-29).”

The People’s Choice Study

In 1940, a study called the People’s Choice Study was conducted as an examination of how media affected voter behavior in the presidential election. In the 1940 presidential election, Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran for office against Republican Wendell Willkie (Rodman, 2012). Roosevelt’s victory over his opponent, Willkie, was no surprise; however, the People’s Choice Study revealed important patterns in the effects of the media on voter behavior. The study found that people often searched for psychological consistency, for their ideas to be in balance and harmony with both the ideas of the people around them and their own self-image. This leads to selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention, which are defined as, “the process by which people seek out messages that help them feel consistent in their attitudes,” “the process by which people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently,” and “the process by which people with different views remember the same event differently (Rodman, 2012).”

Media Today

In a study conducted on the ideological biases associated with certain news networks, viewers were shown to make decisions heuristically when given news stories labeled with a news network. For stories labeled with CNN, viewers are more likely to identify it as a story with a liberal bias, and when labeled with FNC (Fox News Channel), viewers were more likely to identify it as a story with conservative bias (Turner, 2007, pp. 441-464). However, in control groups where the stories were not labeled with a specific news network, viewers were able to accurately able to identify stories with liberal, conservative, and neutral bias (Turner, 2007, pp. 441-464). By the process of selective exposure, viewers that are aligned with the conservative ideology may be more likely to seek out programming from FNC and people aligned with a liberal ideology may be more likely to seek out programming from CNN. The implications of this could mean viewers may be quick to categorize information based on the network they were reported by and choose to ignore the ones that they won’t think will be in line with their beliefs, even if the story may be neutrally biased. A more problematic implication is that in a survey conducted by Fairleigh Dickinson University’s PublicMinds, the research found that, “NPR and Sunday Morning political talk shows are the most informative news outlets while exposure to partisan sources, such as Fox News and MSNBC, has a negative impact on people’s current events knowledge” and upon surveying the effects of several news networks, the report explains: “The largest effect is that of Fox News: all else being equal, someone who watched only Fox News would be expected to answer just 1.04 domestic questions correctly – a figure which is significantly worse than if they had reported watching no media at all ( Beaujon, 2012).”

The amount of ideological bias and propagandistic style of reporting in today’s media is problematic and inhibits American viewers from processing information and being able to make intelligent decisions. Franklin Delano Roosevelt accomplished great success with his use of mass communication during his terms as president. His addresses made to the American people were no doubt democratically propagandistic but where also informative. What today’s media can learn from the success of Roosevelt’s techniques is that rather than separating form and content, publicity could meld both aesthetic and substance to not only speak to the emotion, but also feed the mind (Duncombe, 2008, pp. 28-29).

References

Beaujon, A. (2012, May 23). Survey: NPR’s listeners best-informed, Fox viewers worst-

informed | Poynter.. Poynter. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/mediawire/174826/survey-nprs-listeners-best-informed-fox-news-viewers-worst-informed/

Duncombe, S. (2008). FDR’s Democratic Propaganda. journal, 286(13), 28-29.

(1998). False Jewish Ancestry of Franklin Delano Roosevelt: An Anti-Semitic Pamphlet

Distributed Before the Presidential Election of 1940.. Western States Jewish History , 30(4), 327-335.

(2004). How America Adopted Radio: Demographic Differences in Set Ownership Reported in

the 1930-1950 U.S. Censuses. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48, 179-195. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from the EBSCOhost database.

Rodman, G. (2012). Mass Media in a Changing World (4th Edition ed.). New York: McGraw-

Hill.

(2005). The Great Communicator: How FDR’s Radio Speeches Shaped American History.

History Teacher, 39, 89-106.

Turner, J. (2007). The Messenger Overwhelming the Message: Ideological Cues and Perceptions

of Bias in Television News.. Political Behavior, 29(4), 441-464.

Cyberstaking and Domestic Violence

Cyberstalking and Domestic Violence

Lindsey Lopez

De Anza Community College

  

 Author Note:

This paper was prepared for Journalism 2, taught by Professor Dada

Abstract

Technology has become an integral part of modern life.  The internet provides many convenient and entertaining tools for accomplishing diverse tasks.  These advancements are not always utilized the way they were intended.  Some people use social media sites and a variety of technology to invade the privacy of others.  Social Media and internet promote unhealthy relationship behavior in teenagers.  Such behavior includes trolling, cyberbullying, and cyberstalking.  Some experts even speculate that these dysfunctional tendencies have lead to an increase in domestic violence.  This problem has the potential to grow out of control since law enforcement has not yet adapted to all of the obstacles the internet presents.

Introduction

            Technology has made several advancements in the last decade.  Today, the majority of people have home computers, laptops, tablets or smart phones.  These devices provide us with convenient and unlimited access to people and information all over the world.  Through social websites, our friends and loved ones are just a few clicks away.  We can see into their daily lives through their check-ins, status updates, blogs and pictures they post on their pages.  We can also comment on these postings.  Unfortunately, not all comments are nice, and the internet has become another tool for bullies and predators to torment their victims.  Issues like cyberstalking, the use of technology to force “nonconsensual communication… that would cause a reasonable person to fear,” and trolling, purposefully and usually anonymously disrupting someone online, have become normalized in today’s society, especially among teens (Nicol, 2012).  The use of internet technology and the prevalence of cyberstalking by adolescents has the potential to lead to more domestic violence in the future.

Unhealthy Internet Behaviors in Teens

            Technology is a huge aspect in developing teenage identity.   During this stage, adolescents typically learn social cues and information about relationships and appropriate behavior from peers rather than their parents.  Social networking sites provide a way for 90% of adolescents to keep tabs on friends, while 72% use these sites to initiate plans with friends (King-Ries, 2011). Teens even incorporate technology into their dating habits. Many use cellphones to contact their partner up to 30 times an hour.  “Sexting” has become the new norm among romantic partners with 70 % posting or sending sexy pictures or messages (King-Ries, 2011). 

Technology brings unforeseen dangers.  It provides a means of control and domination (Shimizu, 2013).  Online bullying, or cyberbullying, and cyberstalking have existed since the internet was created.  These issues “involve a number of legal [disputes like] invasion of privacy,” libel, defamation, and freedom of speech (Rodman, 412).  Teens engage in risky behavior because they maximize the potential benefits and minimize the consequences.  They don’t see the harm that online bullying and harassment can cause.  A majority of teens reported that they endured online insults or rants from their current or previous partners (King-Ries, 2011).  Surprisingly, “90% of young people ignore cyberbullying when they [see] it,” (Nicol, 2012).

Reality Check

Teens need to be educated on the seriousness of their online behavior.  The internet is a powerful tool, but not everyone uses it for good.  Professor Lasdun shared his experience of cyberstalking in an essay published in Chronicle of Higher Education.  One of his former students launched an internet smear campaign against him when he declined her romantic advancements.  She posted numerous blogs and comments defaming his character and accusing him of heinous actions.  She said he was racist, sexist, and sexually deviant.  She went as far as contacting his employers to try to ruin his career.  She also emailed many of his colleagues as if she was him.  She vowed she would “ruin him,” and she almost did.  He reported her to the police but the laws in regard to cyberstalking are new, not specific to online stalking, and hard to enforce (Lasdun, 2013). 

As illustrated by Lasdun, cyberstalking is a serious issue that doesn’t go away easily.  Even if the stalker stops, the information and accusations are out there forever.  Teens who take nude pictures or bully others are susceptible for those actions to haunt them in the future.  Online activities don’t go away.  Worse still, if teens find themselves victims of cyberstalking, or cyberbullying there is little they can do to stop it.  Cyberstalkers use GPS, spyware, monitoring chips, cellphone applications, surveillance cameras, and social networks to track, stalk, harass and humiliate their victims and it is difficult to tell if a device has been tampered with (King-Ries).  The laws struggle to keep up with the continually evolving technology. 

Law Enforcement Offers Little Protection

There are many conflicts when trying to form laws to protects victims of cyberstalking.  State governments have to apply “real space laws to the internet,” (Shimizu, 2013).  Since a stalker can be across the country, or the world for that matter, there are huge jurisdictional issues.  Another problem is that stalking and cyberstalking are not the same thing.  Stalking statutes don’t apply to online stalking, and many states have not made efforts to accommodate technological advancements.  Most stalking laws and protection orders require that there be physical proximity, but that is not the case on the internet.  Even if a protection order is issued, it is hard to enforce because it only protects a person from contacting the victim.  Free speech protects the stalker from being prosecuted for publicly speaking about the victim (Shinizu, 2013). 

Increased Domestic Violence Among Adolescents

Violence has become part of the teenage dating experience.  One-third of adolescent women have fallen victim to domestic violence (King-Ries, 2011).  Domestic violence is less about conflict and more about enforcing power or control over another.  Cyberstalking is one way that partners keep tabs on their victims.  About 30% of all stalking victims are stalked by their current or former partner, with 80% of these victims also experiencing physical abuse and 31% being sexually assaulted.  76% of women who were murdered by their partner had also been stalked by their partner (King-Ries, 2011). These statistics are alarming and bring a sense of urgency to the emerging domestic violence issues in the new digital generation.  Teens need to be made aware of the dangers that unhealthy and dysfunctional relationships can bring.  As of now, they think that love means the passionate expression of jealousy, possessiveness and control. 

Cyberstalking isn’t Seen as a Threat

Some people don’t think cyberstalking is a big deal.  After all, stalking is only feared because of the physical, unwanted presence in your life.  What’s a few harmful words compared to that?  And people are entitled to their opinions and the right to express those opinions if they so choose by any means they please.  The first amendment protects these rights, and if the constitution protects the so-called cyberstalkers, than there can’t be much harm done, right?  Wrong.  The reality is that cyberstalking and cyberbullying can lead to anxiety, PTSD, depression, and self-harm. Your reputation can make or break you.  As professor Lasdun says, “You are what the web says you are, and if it misrepresents you, the feeling of outrage, of having been violated in some elemental layer of your existence is peculiarly crushing,” (Lasdun, 2013).  Then there is the link between stalking behavior and domestic violence.  Laws were formed to protect victims of domestic violence after it was better understood, and there was a significant decrease in domestic violence disputes.  If we become more aware of the dysfunctional, cyberstalking behavior that has become prevalent in teens, we may be able to stop the potential increase of domestic violence in the future.

Opinion

I think that cyberstalking and cyberbullying is a huge issue.  I originally chose this topic because my nephew is a victim of schoolyard bullies who just recently decided that they would cyberbully and stalk him as well.  I didn’t realize the relationship between cyberstalking and domestic violence.  It is very scary to think about the different and ever-evolving ways that people abuse the internet.  I was also surprised to find that there are only a few states that have laws specific to cyberstalking or cyberbullying.  It is definitely something that I will follow and attempt to change.

Conclusion

The use of internet technology and the prevalence of cyberstalking by adolescents has the potential to lead to more domestic violence in the future. Teens need to be educated about the various dangers and consequences associated with their internet behavior.  Parents, law enforcement, and society in general, also need to be more aware of the seriousness of these issues.  Technology is a powerful tool.  We just need to make sure it is not abused, and to protect those who fall victims to those who do abuse its power.

References

King-Ries, A.  (2011).  TEENS, TECHNOLOGY, AND CYBERSTALKING:  THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE WAVE OF THE FUTURE?.  Tezas Journal of Women and The Law, 20(2), 131-164.

Lasdun, J.  (2013).  ‘I Will Ruin Him’.  Chronicle Of Higher Education, B6.

Nicol, S.  (2012).  Special Feature/  Cyber-bullying and trolling.  Youth Studies Australia, 31(4), 3-4.

Rodman, G.  (2012).  Mass Media in a Changing World. 4th Edition.  Brooklyn:  Mc Graw Hill.

Shimizu, A.  (2013).  Domestic Violence in the Digital Age:  Towards the Creation of Comprhensive

Cyberstalking Statute.  Berkeley Journal Of Gender, Law & Justice, 28(1), 116-137.

Research Paper (draft 2)

Laiza Millan

Mass Communications

March 4, 2014

Photoshop and Fashion Magazines

        What makes a beautiful model in a fashion magazine picture? An unblemished skin, a body that is free from any disgusting body fat, and the height to match their striking poses? Beautiful young women such as these can be seen in a variety of fashion magazines. Fashion magazines that are targeted to young girls ages 11 and 18. However, as much as readers love to see how a model looks with a brand name outfit, their beauty is magnified and edited with the use of a picture editing tool known as Photoshop. Thanks to Photoshop, media literacy should be taught to young girls’ ages 11 to 18, to help them understand they are being manipulated by the fake beautified pictures of these models in the fashion magazine.

Body Image

    According to a study in Pediatrics, about two-thirds of girls in the 5th to 12th grades said that magazine images influence their vision of an ideal body (Ross, Carolyn, 2014). Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. The more teens thought about the pictures and compared themselves critically to models they saw in fashion magazines, the more likely they were to have problems with their own body image. When young girls see a picture of a beautiful model in a magazine, wearing perfectclothes and wearing beautiful make-up, they would want to be just like that individual in the paper. But what can society do when the media uses fashion magazines project these images? In a Huffingtonpost article written by Vivian Diller, Ph.D, she suggests that people need to relieve America’s youth of the pressure to meet unrealistic body standard established by these distorted images, The American Medical Association (AMA) stated that it was against image manipulation, stating that photo alteration tools such as Photoshop can contribute to unrealistic body image expectations (Diller, 2007). Teenagers would be willing to change their image or the way they because they want to have that perfect look the media claims, not knowing it is all unreal. In fact, these models get their picture taken and the studio gets their real picture Photoshopped. Meaning their waist gets slimmer, their neck becomes longer, the pimples or zits on their faces completely vanish, and would even make their skin lighter too; making the ‘perfect look’. Thanks to the AMA, it is just beginning to raise public awareness of the impact of image manipulation on childhood development. Knowing that photo alteration tools such as Photoshop can contribute to the way young girls see their own body image, it is very important that they are educated with the knowledge that those beautiful models in the fashion magazine pictures is not, in fact, like that in real life.

Self-Esteem

     “We’re seeing girls at younger ages starting to be dissatisfied with their bodies, proactively trying to change them, and feeling like they need to emulate something different than what their bodies can do,” says Elissa Gittes, MD, a pediatrician in the division of adolescent medicine at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (Huebeck, Elizabeth, 2011). In an attempt to emulate the countless media images they view, girls would often go to extremes. Many end up with very low self-esteem, and some with dangerous eating disorders. According to the textbook, Mass Media: In a Changing the World, the ideal female model for a fashion magazine must be 5 feet 4 inches tall and weigh less than 120 pounds. Just looking at these images in the fashion magazines, young girls will be pressuring themselves to lose weight just to remain thin. The Photoshopped pictures influences the girls to diet secretly without telling anyone, which can cause harmful damage to their own bodies making them unhealthy. Young girls’ self-esteem will be tested because they cannot help but compare themselves to the models in the magazine. They will be thinking, “If only I had a trainer or a stylist, then I will end up looking like that.” Why are teens focused on staying thin after seeing the pictures on a magazine? In Western society, the media pushes that sort of thought into magazines knowing that young girls are the largest consumers when it comes to fashion. The magazine wants the viewers, in this case young girls that are around in the ages of 11 to 18, want them to have that mindset of needing to look like the models. So, they have that “thin at all costs” movement that rages and defines the Western culture; which can cause a problem. If a young girl who happens to be 5 foot 3 and weigh 140 pounds, she is going to compare herself to that image in the magazine and her self-esteem will more than likely be challenged as well.  According to the article Why Do Women Hate Their Bodies by Carolyn Ross, MD, in Psycentral, a study in Pediatrics, about half of the girls who are in 5th to 12th  grade, said the images made them want to lose weight (Ross, Carolyn, 2014). Young girls’ view the magazine at an early age and that is when they start pressuring themselves about getting the right body image society tells them too. If media literacy is being taught to young girls about the images in these fashion magazines, they will know the real life models in the magazines are not at all as they appear to be, and these girls will have the idea of what a “real” healthy ideal body looks like.

Pro-Photoshop

      According to a fashion magazine known as Glamour, by journalist Shaun Dreisbach, “Nearly 60 percent [of women] feel it’s OK for a woman to tweak her personal pictures” (Dreisbach, Shaun, 2013). In an article of Glamour magazine, it explained how a large percentage of young girls would Photoshop their pictures to get rid of any ‘imperfections’. Glamour commissioned an independent nationwide survey of 1,000 women to find out what their intake is with Photoshopping ones picture. Apparently, many women have no problem with digitally erasing small imperfections such as pimples, baby fats, or other imperfections. However, they only agree to a certain extent. To some young girls, having their photo beautified can be flattering for their image. They feel they are compelled to fix any imperfections they see on the image. They compare themselves to the pictures of the fashion magazines, and cannot help but go ahead and retouched their own photos, adding longer legs, whiter skin, whiter teeth, and anti-blemishes; anything to help them look even slightly closer to the pictures in the magazine. In the Post-Dispatch, written by fashion editor, Debra D. Bass, she interviewed a full-time photo editor whose job was to take pictures of celebrities, Meg Hensley. “Slimming and changing arms or a waist is not meant to create something unnatural or exaggerated, it’s not meant to be malicious on purpose,” Hensley said. “The goal is not making a size 2 look as if she’s a size negative 33, but she just might be standing in a way that makes her arm look big in proportion to her body or she slouched, but otherwise it’s a good image.” (Bass, Debra, 2014). It is not necessary a bad thing to use Photoshop to edit ones pictures. As Dreisbach from Glamour found out, a handful of women claim that it can be a good thing, because it helps shed some light on how they physically look. To them, it is okay to make your arms look more slimmer, or your face to be clear from zits. But to some extent, meaning the pictures in the magazines can be extremely edited to the point where the celebrity is nearly unrecognizable. Young girls will be going through puberty, meaning they will have to go through so many physical changes as well, so to them, they find a photo alteration tool such as Photoshop can be a good thing, especially since they see the models in the magazines use them as well. It is true that the use of Photoshop to manipulate the pictures in a magazine is a concern for young girls. But when it comes to publicity and fashion magazines, a photographer can manipulate what the viewer sees. Some young girls are aware that what you see is not necessarily what you see in reality. So, if young girls are aware of the fact that the pictures they see in the fashion magazines is not 100% true and they are okay with having their pictures edited to look like a better version of themselves, as long as they know the risks.

In the End

       According to a 2006 report by Magazine Publishers of America, 78% of young girls read magazines. A 1999 study made by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that teens 15 to 18 years old spend an average of 13 minutes daily reading magazines. Using Photoshop in a fashion magazine to attract young girls can be a mixture of positive and negative. Positive, because as some of the editors say, it can make their models or celebrities clear from any slight imperfections, giving them that classic beauty looks. But perhaps too much of Photoshop can have a negative side-affect as well because based  on the research, many girls between the ages of 11 to 18, compare themselves to the images they see in fashion magazines such as Vogue and even Seventeen magazines. A small comparison can lead to a bigger effect, where girls compare their body image and then their self-esteem becomes tested.  It is not very easy to just hide these young girls from the media. It is impossible to hide the fashion magazines that are littered in every doctor’s offices, even at the store. But it would be a great opportunity for the parents to get involved, as they educate these young girls. At this generation, it is very important that social media is taught to young girls at least at the ages of 11 to 18. They need to understand what is being shown to them because at the end of the day, Photoshop usage in a fashion magazine still exists today. Some girls who are against using photo alteration tools, has finally decided to speak up. A 13 year old girl name Julia Bluhm, submitted a petition though a website called Change.org, telling Seventeen Magazine to show “real” women from now on instead of Photoshop. The magazine’d editor-in-chief Ann Shoket replied back saying they created a Body Peace Treaty for the magazine staff – which is a list of vows on how they will run things to make the readers feel “amazing”.

No More Movie Ratings

Johnathan M. Preston

In this research paper I will aim to convince readers that theaters, or the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) for that matter, should no longer enforce the movie ratings. I will be going in to detail later on in the paper using sources from Rodman (2012), Ebert (2000), Svetkey/Entertainment Weekly (1994), Libaw/ABCNews (2013), and MPAA (2010). However, to begin I will focus on giving a brief background of this issue, and then aim to explore what you could consider the “worthlessness” of the rating system.

Founded in 1922 the MPAA have been developing and establishing a voluntary system that classifies motion pictures. However, children of all ages have been able to go view movies through trickery or through members of older ages. Now with the ever-evolving advances of technology it has become almost impossible to enforce the ratings on movies. Quite simply, if someone wants to see a movie there’s only a few things preventing the possibility; the lack of funds to afford going to the theater to partake in the event, or the lack of Internet accessibility. With numerous sites available to download or watch new movies it could be argued more of a burden on the pockets of Hollywood than the worry of the impression a movie may have on our youth. The seemingly invisible line the MPAA has drawn has become more laughable than enforceable. Not only is the system easily avoidable, but also the criterion on which it’s based is questionable. For example, the MPAA urge parents to be cautious if their child is going to a PG-13 rated movie; yet parenting itself is conducted on an individual basis, so the classification can seem unfair as ultimately what is ‘cautious’ to one parent is acceptable to the next. The idea a room of individuals should be afforded the opportunity to decide what’s considered ‘right’ or appropriate to all age groups seems a bit asinine.

In the book, Mass Media in a Changing World, Rodman discusses how movie ratings were established by the movie industry to avoid government censorship in 1922. A few years later ‘Motion Picture Production Code’ (MPPC) was established to officially put in place rules set by Will Hays, an elder in the Presbyterian Church. The industry sanctioned Hays to delay the release of films until producers complied with his demands. During this period many different rules were put into effect. For example, movies had to refrain from any reference to sex or sexual activity, any mention of breastfeeding, or even the agony of childbirth. Upon the formalization of the MPPC the rules became more subjective and limiting. For example, in a bedroom scene where one bed was shown with a man and a woman, both actors were required to have one foot on the floor. Some films went away from the one foot grounded rule and decided to combat the rule by placing separate beds in the room instead. The Hays rule also forbade producers from disrespecting the government with negative portrayals as well as not allowing the ‘bad guy’ in films to get away with criminal activities (Rodman 177). Hay’s rules changed the direction of many movies of the time and also could be directly blamed for sullying the outlook of moviegoers and distorting society around him. Today directors, actors, and production companies are blamed for their involvement in the portrayal of negativity shown on TV and movie screens alike, and we compare the violence and sex shown on different mediums for the actions carried out in the real world we live in. Can we not use that same logic for the unrealistic exploits the Hay’s rules implied? The idea a married couple wouldn’t share the same bed, or everyone should be in agreement with the government’s views are unrealistic. Hell, even the Bible speaks of how childbirth is meant to be painful for women. In some ways he was denying Americans the opportunity to explore other concepts brought forward by the talented and creative writers and directors of these movies. Films such as Moon is Blue (1953) and The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) directed by Otto Preminger were released without the approval of the MPPC. Preminger’s films would gain tremendous notoriety and success both financially and critically. These films would lead to the demise of the MPPC and introduction of the debacle of today’s current system established in 1968.

To better educate myself on the matter I read the Classification and Rating Rules Guide. The content of the twenty-three-page document ranges from the criteria for the rating of a movie, to the selection standards of the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA) members. Some of the major and more interesting facts I pulled from the document were: each member of the Rating Board must be a parent, raters children must be between the ages of five and fifteen upon entry to the board and must vacate from the board when all their children have reached twenty-one. The idea of this was to ensure the MPAA is getting the perspective of knowledgeable parents and what they believe is suitable for children. According to the rules, the raters must also remain unanimous to protect against pressure from individuals of the public, producer, and others affiliated with the motion pictures. The following sections layout the template for each rating: G-General Audiences. All Ages Admitted, PG-Parental Guidance Suggested. Some Material May Not Be Suitable for Children, PG-13-Parents Strongly Cautioned. Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Children Under 13, R-Restricted. Children Under 17 Require Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian, and finally NC-17-No one 17 and Under Admitted. One major issue seems to be the thin line between NC-17 and R ratings.  Most studios shy away from NC-17 because of its low profit margins and limiting fan base.

Roger Ebert, a well-known movie critic, calls for a more realistic ratings system. His reason behind the change stems from the wayward manner films are rated by the MPAA. He goes on to compare Coyote Ugly (2000) and Almost Famous (2000) to the cookie cutter rules of the Association. Coyote Ugly was rated PG even though the movie glorified the objectivity of women who sexually danced atop bar counters for tips but “because there is technically no nudity” the movie dodged a higher rating. Meanwhile Almost Famous was destined to receive an R rating because of it’s irrelevant nudity, language, and negative portrayal of drug use (Ebert, 2000). The MPAA failed to see the depiction of a teenage boy navigating through the tough life on the road during a rock tour with the support of his mother. The obvious matter in all of this is the protection of our youth undoubtedly, but are we really under the impression today’s teenagers don’t know profane words already? Certainly, in Ebert’s generation and in a constantly maturing world teenagers have seen exposed body parts through courses of sexual education or daily life occurrences.

I’m aware the ratings system was created to protect filmmakers’ freedom of speech and avoid censorship, but at what point is responsibility given back to the viewer. Creator of the current system and former President of the MPAA, Jack Valenti recognized the inconsistency of the system declaring, “Violence is harder to catalog than sensuality…There either is copulation or there isn’t…But it’s hard to measure gradations of violence. John Wayne hitting the beaches at Iwo Jima and mowing down 2,000 people–how do you equate that with a fellow being fellated? It’s pretty difficult.” (Svetkey & Natale, 1994) If it’s that difficult, why not put control into the hands of loving, responsible parents and guardians? ABCNews reported the FTC’s undercover survey of close to 300 theaters proved almost 50% of unaccompanied 13-16 year olds were able to buy tickets and attend R movies. The study also showed those unable to purchase the tickets still found ways of getting around the rule, either by getting older sibling or friends to purchase them, or buying PG-13 or lower rated film to get into the theater and simply walking into the R-rated picture. Now, it is important to point out I’m not saying we should bare all and immediately emerge our children in nude images, conversely I do believe in the proper plot a teenager can learn from the acts of someone figuring out what’s right from wrong from a film. As Shawn McReedy simply said after being questioned on his opinion by Libaw of ABCNews, “What else is there to go see? Any movie worth going to is R-rated” (Libaw, 2013). Do we really expect our teens to only watch and learn from Disney movies? We are passed the point of musical teapots and snowmen relating to the typical American teen. Let’s put an end to the ridiculousness and move on from this overbearing system.

research paper final draft

Isaac Velasquez

Professor Dada

Mass Communication

Tues/Thurs 9:30-11:20

03/11/14

The Digital Campaign

Since Tim Berners-Lee’s creation of The World Wide Web in 1989, the internet(as we know it now) has evolved into a very powerful tool (Rodman, 2014). Whether it is used for online shopping or reaching friends and relatives on social media, the internet has become an integral part in our society. It’s use has found its way into the Political scene which in turn has changed the face of the traditional campaign.  As more and more aspects of our society get digitized, the internet has to be a tool that future candidates must adopt in order to stay relevant and to reach voters. Both the 2008 and 2012 elections showed us just how important it is to have a strong internet campaign.

The internet allows political campaign committees to use a rather inexpensive medium to post commercials and interviews on websites, blogs, and YouTube for voters to view as they please.  In fact in 2008 Clinton, Edwards, Obama, and Sam Brownback all used Web videos to announce their candidacies(Haynes, 2009). These candidates recognized the potential impact that this medium could have and pushed to use it as often as they could. Polls show that three-quarters (74%) of internet users went online during the 2008 election to take part in, or get news and information about the 2008 campaigns(Smith, 2009). The potential viewers and the reach of these video advertisements have risen drastically. This poll does not just pertain to the 18-25 years old demographic, it reflects the population as a whole. The availability of this technology not only increased the use of these websites by campaign committees, but with it brought in a new audience. By late October of 2008, 39 percent of voters had watched some sort of campaign-related video online, according to the Pew Research Center, up from the 24 percent who said in December, before the primaries began, that they had watched political videos(Schwabb,2008).  This trend continued into the 2012 election but everything was on a much bigger scale. YouTube grew to show three billion hours of video per month to the eyes of its users, with clips also being embedded upon countless web pages. (Hayward, 2012)

Posting videos isn’t the only way that candidates were able to generate a buzz around their campaigns. Along with posting videos, political blogging has also taken centre stage with expressing a candidates views and political stance on certain issues. Much of what people see on these websites solidifies their view on the candidate and their political ideology, this in turn decides whether they vote for them or not. The process doesn’t end with just posting their blogs on a public forum, their blogs have the potential to reach more people than they originally intended. This is due to the fact that people share these blogs on their own private blogs or on other public websites. The most popular means to share posts were through email (52.5%), digg (50.8%), Facebook (47.5%), del.icio.us (44.1%), tumblr (37.3%), Reddit (35.6%), twitter (35%), Yahoo (30.5%), Google (27.1%), MSM (20.3%), MySpace (20.3%), Technorati (16.9%), and Newsvine (11.9%) (Allen,2010). The result is a greater reach of the candidates exposure to voters.  There is a risk with this method, once candidates put this information out they no longer own it. This leaves them open to getting inundated with negative comments from the opposing candidates supporters. The information put out can also be used to put the candidate in a bad light. This manipulation of information would be the result of spinning news.  (Rodman, 2012)

Social media and blogs also played a major role in the 2012 election. In 2008 Obama did not have much of a challenge from Mccain on the online circuit but in 2012, Mitt Romney’s team put up a much better online fight. For example, both campaigns had online teams pumping out Twitter messages during the debates, with Obama’s team issuing a considerably higher volume of messages(Smith,2009). Since 2008, the use of Twitter has also grown dramatically, it became a major source of communication between the candidates and the public. For example, Mitt Romney’s digital director, Zac Moffatt, told The Washington Post that a few hours after a topic gathered steam on Twitter, the campaign turned to Facebook to see how it was resonating in the larger universe of public opinion(Blumenthal, 2012).

Besides gaining recognition, another important part in running a successful campaign is being able to get donations to keep funding all that the candidate wants to do. In the 2012 election Obama’s campaign team used the internet the best when it came to fundraising.  In a report released after the election it was revealed that from Oct. 18 until the Election Day on Nov. 6 the president raised $88 million and spent $176 million. That far exceeded the $66 million raised by his rival Mitt Romney and the $107 million spent by the Republican presidential nominee during the same period (Blumenthal, 2012).  Most of the money was spent on television ads, but the bulk of the money to buy those ads was initially generated by digital efforts, including email, social media, mobile and their own websites (Scherer, 2012). Obama’s campaign donations were not all gained through large donations, it was in fact composed of small $50-$100 donations given by normal everyday citizens. Motivated by their support for Obama, some fans took the initiative through the Internet, and Obama’s MyBO social networking site in particular, to raise money for Obama on their own, as well(Scherer, 2012). For example, some of Obama’s supporters created a page called “Obama Minute” through which they planned to raise one million dollars in a minute. Though they did not reach one million dollars, they did raise $250,000 for the President.

Along with name recognition and fundraising, the internet and social media sites are a helpful tool for data crunchers to determine where their demographic is and what is the best way to reach them. Google search data and YouTube views provide important tools for measuring public interest (Hayward, 2012). By collecting data on the number of clicks on certain videos and blogs, campaign researchers are able to see what is trending and what they should focus on pushing more. This is a powerful tool to help focus on a target audience and save money by allocating their media attention to a specific group instead of sending it out randomly. Using the digital consulting firm Blue State Digital for constant data collection, Obama’s supporters received e-mails with specialized content based on their state or congressional district, their interests, demographics, donation history, or past pattern of actions on behalf of the campaign (Leuschner, 2012). In the 2012 election, the size of followings on Twitter and Facebook were compared. Obama had far more Twitter followers; Romney picked up almost three times as many Facebook “Likes” during the debates(Hayward, 2012). Of course this isn’t a definite guarantee that they may get that vote because voter attitudes can change, especially with those who identify as independent. This style of data collecting was also beneficial the day the votes were cast to determine where a candidate stood. After people casted their votes, polls showed that, 22% of registered voters let others know how they voted on a social networking site such as Facebook or Twitter(Rainie, 2012).

I feel that people need to know the direction that campaigns are heading. Things are changing and evolving constantly and it is our responsibility to stay proficient in our media literacy. I not saying that old traditional methods of campaigns are going to become completely obsolete but there are going to be new additions to the tools campaign committees are going to be able to use. I feel that with the shift to online campaigns have made things easier for both citizens and candidates alike.

In conclusion, as technology has evolved the face of the political campaign has evolved alongside it. We have seen it play an integral role in both the 2008 and the 2012 elections by helping both candidates raise funds, predict demographics, and to gain name recognition. By being able to appeal to the masses and by analyzing data recorded from social media sites future candidates will be able to best mold their campaigns. We can only speculate how important these new venues will be, but if previous elections are any indicator it would be safe to say that they will play a pivotal role.

word count: 1447

Research Paper – Changes in Methods of Communication

- Shreya Zalani

Sending and receiving messages is a vital part of human communication and this process has undergone significant changes over time to turn out the way it is today. From inscriptions on stone pillars to the Internet, various changes, discoveries, inventions and innovations have shaped the methods of communication to make them how they are in the present. My research paper deals with how and why these changes took place over time, especially those in ancient times, starting from much before the 6th century, BC.

  1. Early Methods

The first messages were spread through word of mouth, from one person to another. There were also town criers, who announced the message to the people as an audience. Another method of giving out information was through inscribing text on pillars. However, all these methods were localized and did not reach a large audience. A town crier could only call out to be heard by a certain number of people. The same was the case with pillars, which would only be seen by people hailing from that particular area. This led to a need for communication methods that could be used to send messages for a longer distance.

The first long-distance communication is believed to have been the smoke signals used by Native Americans and kinds of whistle tones by the Chinese. (Media History Project, 2012). Both these methods had a much larger range than the methods used previously and reached a wider audience. However, the major drawback of using either of these was the limited number of meanings. Smoke signals as well as the whistles could only have certain meanings that could mean things like danger, but these methods could not be used to convey everyday messages.

  1. New ways to reach a bigger audience

In about 6th century BC, another form of long-distance communication was developed. As stated in the History of Communication website, “The sending of written messages is a standard feature of government in early civilizations. Much of our knowledge of those times derives from archives of such messages, discovered by archaeologists. There is great advantage to a ruler who can send or receive a message quicker than his rivals. In the estimation of the ancient world the most efficient postal service is that of the Persians. Put in place by Cyrus in about 540 BC to control his new empire, the largest yet known, it is much improved upon by Darius a generation later.” (Gascoigne, B., 2001 – ongoing).  Darius improved the existing system by extending the roads by a significant amount, this increasing the speed of delivery of the messages. From the 2nd to 11th centuries, horses were introduced in this postal system, which made delivering messages even faster and more efficient.

The 11th century saw the introduction of pigeon post. In this method, small messages were tied to the foot of a pigeon and the bird then carried the message to the desired location. The use of pigeons in this manner was first seen in Egypt. In Baghdad, pigeons were bred and trained in such ways that these pigeons, also called “homing pigeons”, would come back to their original starting point, no matter where they were. This method of communication was better than the postal service by messengers on horses because the birds were not affected by geographical features such as mountains or large water bodies. The birds were also faster than the men on horseback. (Gascoigne, B., 2001 – ongoing).

  1. Significant developments and inventions

The next development was a breakthrough in the methods of communication – the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1450s. With this, books and soon, newspapers came into play. These two print media became widespread sources of information. The use of the press to print out pamphlets also played a large role in war propaganda. It was also because of Gutenberg’s press that magazines came into being. All of these print media played a major role in spreading information and often swaying people’s decisions and promoting literacy. It was because of newspapers that in 1971, the First Amendment was changed, guaranteeing freedom of press. Photojournalism started with magazines. A lot of products and companies also profited as a result of the advertisements published in magazines, newspapers and books.

Another important invention regarding the sending and receiving of messages was that of the Morse code by Samuel Morse. The Morse code is a system of dots and dashes, where each letter of the alphabet is denoted by a different pattern. This code allowed messages to be communicated to the receiving side at a time when voices could not be transmitted over the radio. However, soon many new developments helped make necessary changes to the radio and transmitting voices and even music became possible.

The discovery of radio waves in 1887 by Hertz, led to the next big thing in terms of sending messages from one location to another without the use of a physical messenger and later, to a widespread audience – the radio. The radio makes use of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian, was the inventor of the radio. As mentioned in Mass Media in a Changing World, “He combined Hertz’s metal coil, Edison’s electric power and Morse’s telegraph key with several of his own improvements, including a grounding system with an antenna that he designed.” (Rodman, G., 2012)

Another important invention regarding the sending and receiving of messages was that of the Morse code by Samuel Morse. The Morse code is a system of dots and dashes, where each letter of the alphabet is denoted by a different pattern. This code allowed messages to be communicated to the receiving side at a time when voices could not be transmitted over the radio. However, soon many new developments helped make necessary changes to the radio and transmitting voices and even music became possible.

The television was a great change in mass communication because it added a visual component along with the audio. But I feel that in comparison with television, the internet has a much larger impact because in regards to television, the receivers do not have a chance to send any feedback whereas depending on how the internet is used, there is a lot of to-and-fro communication. The internet was first used for military purposes but has now become part of the daily lives of people. Through internet, there is both mass and interpersonal communication as well as integration of both radio and television.

From ancient times to the present, a host of changes, which have been the result of the necessity for new development have significantly affected the methods of communication. All these changes have taken place to improve the process of sending and receiving messages to make it what it is today.

Word Count: 1142

References

Gascoigne, B. (2001 – ongoing), History of Communication. Retrieved from: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=aa93

Regents of the University of Minnesota (2012, May 21). Media History Project. Retrieved from: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/timeline/

Rodman, G. (2012). Mass media in a changing world: History, Industry, Controversy (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Net Neutrality research paper 4th draft Brian Rose

I am posting the final draft of my research paper. The changes are in the bibliography. There were some newspaper, Lexus/Nexus and EBSCO Host articles that I missed in my hast to make the bibliography. I added links were I could. Some of the links caused real trouble. I did not add any for EBSCO, the links are as long as a railroad time table and take up to much space. I have annotated the book section. And I had one of those “When you pull your out moments”, in the body of the article I do not have page numbers next to two citations for Susan Crawford,s Captive Audience.

JOUR 2 Mass Comm Brian F. Rose
Word count 1,525 03/03/ 2014

Net Neutrality

On the Jan 18, 2014 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia struck down parts of FCC Network Neutrality regulations covering broadband telecommunication. (Washington Post, 01/18/2014) The Court of Appeals ruled that anti-blocking and anti-discrimination did not apply to broadband providers because they not common carriers under FCC rules. (Fitch Ratings, Business Wire 01/15/2014) The ruling will allow top broadband companies Verizon, AT&T, Time-Warner and Comcast greater control over broadband speed, information and access. Net neutrality regulations touch on free speech, control of access, infrastructure upgrades and control of the internet.
In Captive Audience (2013) author Susan Crawford described communication regulation at the turn of the twenty first century as resting on one distinction, transport of information is a common carriage service, subject to oversight to prevent discrimination, oversight to prevent discrimination and required to connect with all networks. Everything else was treated as non common carrier service. (Susan Crawford, Captive Audience Pg.) Here is analogy, if you buy a coach ticket on the California Zephyr from Oakland to Chicago the railroad carriers you at the same price as anyone else with a coach ticket, this is common carriage service. The ticket does not give you access to the Pullman sleeping car. The sleeping car is an extra service. But if you paid for it you could not be discriminated against and denied service.
The debate over regulation started in a different form during the Gilded Age. Railroads were the big business of the nineteenth century. They carried the burden of financing and constructing the network. Railroad executives felt that since they built it they were free to charge what the market would bear. William H. Vanderbilt President of the New York Central remark “Let the public be damned” (Mass Media, Pg. 332), summed up the view many railroad executives. After numerous court cases attempting the regulate the railroads it was established that railroads were common carriers with natural monopoly between point’s A and B. (The American Heritage History of Railroads in America, 1975) They were subject to regulation via the commerce clause of the federal constitution. And the Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 to regulate them. (Beth, Loren P. The Development of the American Constitution, 1877-1917, 1971)
At the turn of twentieth century a related area of controversy were the large trusts and combines being created by Wall Street banker J. P. Morgan. Morgan argued that the competition between business’s in the 1880s and 90s was wasteful and destructive. That large trusts and combines would create a regulated orderly market. The companies were either vertically or horizontally integrated depending on industry. (The Tycoons, Morris, Charles R., 2005) J. D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil was a leading example of vertically and horizontally integrated company. Ira Tarbell’s History of Standard Oil put the spotlight on Rockefeller and the trusts. (Mass Communications, Pg. 334)
In the progressive era, President Theodore Roosevelt (Mowry, George E., The era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912, 1958) argued that the trusts were inhibiting competition. Regulated competition promoted growth and innovation. During Roosevelt term Standard Oil was broken up. His successor William Howard Taft was a firm believer in big business under government regulation and broke up more trusts then Roosevelt.
At this time the telephone network was being constructed. Telephones have allows subject to regulation via the franchise requirements of municipalities. Power and light companies, street railways and interurban railways were subject from the beginning to similar regulation. The franchise holder was providing a public service subject to regulation. Theodore Vail President of AT&T from 1907 to 1919 was a leading proponent of the natural monopoly subject to government regulation. Only a large company could afford to construct and run the telephone network infrastructure. And they had an obligation to innovate and provide the same service to everyone. (Garnet, Robert W., The Telephone enterprise: the evolution of the Bell System’s horizontal structure, 1876-1909)
In 2014 we have moved far from this view. The FCC removed the Financial Interest and Syndication rule preventing networks from owning the programs they broadcast in the 90s. (Captive Audience, 2013 Pg.128) Before the 90s AT & T could not have owned content providers such as wire service or a movie studio. The result is the vertical integration of today (Captive Audience, 2013 Pg.130). The telecom companies have been able to control a greater share of the market through vertical and horizontal integration. This has lead to an unprecedented control of content by the telecom giants. In the wireless world AT&T and Verizon are dominant. In cable it is Comcast and Time-Warner.
There has been a steady moving away from the consensus “that basic, nondiscriminatory, affordable utility communications services should be made available to all Americans is being dismantled, state by state.” In Europe the opposite is happening. The EU is committed to open internet access. (Thomas, Daniel Financial Times, 06/5/2013) In the Europe the view is it is a national priority to give fast internet service to all citizens as soon as possible. Countries are working to replace their copper wire cables with fiber optic cables to achieve this goal. (Captive Audience, 2013 Pg. 260)
There are a number of reasons why telecom companies oppose net neutrality rules. Netflix can use up to three fifths of a Comcast’s broadband at peak hours. A broadband provider has a legitimate reason to want to regulate that use. Net neutrality prevents Comcast from charging higher fees for access and faster service to large users of its broadband. (Fitch Ratings, Business Wire, 01/14/2014) Telecom companies argue they built the network. Internet companies such as Google and Yahoo are using it for free. The CEO of AT&T Ed Whitacre commented in strong language we built the system they are using for free, but he is not going to let them do that, Whitacre wants a return on the investment. (‘Neutrality Ruling’ Paves the Way for Internet ‘Fast Lanes’, Gustin, Sam Time.com 1/15/2014)
And if net neutral was a purely technical matter it would not be so important. Verizon Wireless brought suit against the FCC claiming net neutrality violates its free speech rights. Net neutrality touches on free speech and not the way Verizon see’s it. (Verizon: FCC Net Neutrality Rules Violate First Amendment: Albanesius, Chloe, PC Magazine July 2012) Without net neutrality a private company effectively becomes the gatekeeper to the flow of information with no obligation to serving the public. Comcast could favor one of its own subsidiaries over and outside provider. Because they are not regulated as a common carrier they are free to provide whatever service they see fit to the public at the price they dictate. They can also dictate terms to content providers.
One effect is slow transmission of content such as Netflix. Broadband provider’s solution is to charge end user a premier price for fast service. They are under no obligation to provide fast service to everyone. (Captive Audience, 2005) AT&T and Verizon did not replace their copper wire network in many parts of New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy. Which removes a source of redundancy in case of emergency? (Smith, Gerry, Huffington Post 11/09/2012)
There are remedies to this problem. The FCC could classify Telecom companies as common carries subject to regulation. It would be difficult to do in the current climate. The view is that government regulation restrains growth and innovation. However this is often not the case. Under ICC railroads were tightly controlled over rate structures, which did control their bottom line. But it was no brake on innovation, by the Forties, several railroads could move a hundred freight cars of California produce at up to one hundred miles an hour to Chicago. By comparison the unregulated US Steel made practically no innovations during this same period. (The Tycoons, Morris, Charles, 2005)
Communities can install their own fiber optic cables and provide broadband as a public service just like water and garbage pickup. Broadband providers are lobbying hard against this and have blocked it in several states. Cities with municipal power have the infrastructure in place. There is nothing to prevent say city of Santa Clara from installing a broadband network. The city of Chattanooga, TN. offers fiber optic service its municipal utility (Captive Audience, 2013 Pg. 256)
Both the public and communities can take a leave from Henry Ford who used the media skillfully to wage a David v Goliath battle against the Association of License Automobile Manufacturers, and won his case in 1911. (The American Heritage History of the Automobile in America, 1977)
Free and open access to information is a right and not a luxury. The first amendment guarantees the right to free speech for everyone. Verizon concept of free speech is wrong, nowhere in the constitution does not give a company the right to be the gatekeeper of speech. The constitution does give the right to regulate commerce between the states to Congress. The FCC needs to regulate telecom companies as common carries. The amount of concentration they have is too great to allow them too have unfettered control over the access and transmission of information.

Bibliography

Books

Rodman, George (2012) Mass Media in a Changing World: Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill
Class textbook covers all aspects of Mass Media.

Morris, Charles R. (2005) The Tycoons: how Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J. P. Morgan invented the American super economy. New York: H. Holt and Co.
In this book Charles Morris tells how the four gentlemen shaped industrial America of the 1880s and 90s. And how their influence made the America the country it is today.

Beth, Loren P. (1971) The development of the American Constitution, 1877-1917, New American Nation Series. Harper Collins Pub.
Loren Beth chronicles the supreme court rulings that shaped the American Constitution from 1877 to 1917

Oliver, Jensen (1975) The American Heritage History of Railroads in America, American Heritage Pub. Co.: Distribution by McGraw-Hill
In the book Jensen Oliver describes the social and economic history of railroads from the beginning to the present day. He describes their impact as the first large business in America, and how railroads affected America on the social, economic and political level from 1830 to the present day.

Sears, Stephen W. (1977) The American Heritage History of the Automobile in America, American Heritage Pub. Co.: Distribution by Simon and Schuster
Stephen Sears describes the social, political and economic effects of the automobile in America from the 1890’

De Anza College Library Books:

Crawford, S. (2013) Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power the Gilded Age. Yale U. Press.
In this book, Susan Crawford, a professor at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law discusses the parallels between today’s broadband providers and the 19th century monopolies. How the process of concentration is leading to America lagging behind other developed nations in telecommunications. Crawford discusses the effects of slower service and higher prices effects the end user.

Mowry, George E. (1958) The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America: Harper Collins Pub.
In the book George Mowry chronicles the political events in America during the first twelve years of the twentieth century under Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.

Garnet, Robert W. (1985) The telephone enterprise: the evolution of the Bell System’s horizontal structure, 1876-1909, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Robert Garnet describes the process of the development of the Bell System in the America. The development of the horizontally integrated telephone system and the regulatory frame work underpinning it as a natural monopoly.

Periodicals and Newspapers

Smith, Gerry: AT&T, Verizon Phase Out Copper Networks ‘A Lifeline’ After Sandy, Huffington Post.com 11/09/2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/09/att-verizon-sandy_n_2094302.html

Porter, Eduardo, Yankee Broadband from the Slow Lane, New York Times/Business Day May 7, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/08/business/google-project-may-spur-broadband-competition.html?ref=eduardoporter&_r=0

Hiltzik, Michael, Net neutrality is dead. Bow to Comcast and Verizon, your overlords, Los Angeles Times, The Economy Hub, 01/14/2014
http://www.latimes.com/business/hiltzik/la-fi-mh-net-neutrality-20140114,0,522106.story – axzz2vbotIUUd

EBSCO HOST source for articles

Powell, Alison and Cooper, Alissa: Net Neutrality Discourses: Comparing Advocacy and Regulatory Arguments in the United States and the United Kingdom, Information Society, Oct-Dec 2011, Vol.27 issue 5 p311-325

Michelle, Maisto: FCC, net Neutrality Lose Out to Verizon in District Court Ruling, 01/14/2014 eWeek, Database: Business Source Elite

Fitch Ratings: Overturned Net Neutrality L/T Positive for Cable/Telecom, 01/15/2014 Business Wire

Gustin, Sam: ‘Net Neutrality’ Ruling Paves the Way For Internet ‘Fast Lanes’ Time.com1/15/2014 Database: Business Source Elite

Chloe,Albanesius: Verizon: FCC Neutrality Rules Violate First Amendment. July 2012, PC Magazine

Kirchgaessner, Stephanie: Internet rules stir Republicans, 12/03/2010 Financial Times (London,England)

Strange, Adario: Netflix CEO Attacks Comcast Over net Neutrality Issues. April 2012 PC Magazine

Lexus/Nexus

Brussels vows to stamp out web ‘throttling’ Financial Times (London, England) June 5, 2013 Wednesday , WORLD NEWS; Pg. 3, 492 words, Thomas Daniel in London and James Fontanella-Khan in Brussels

Internet providers access pledge, 07/25/2012, Financial Times (London, England), NATIONAL NEWS; pg. 2, 193 words, Daniel Thomas, Telecoms Correspondent

http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=5662-JS41-DXXV-40SF&csi=293847&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

Push to end ‘free lunch’ for content providers Financial Times (London, England), 02/14/2011 COMPANIES-INTERNATINONAL; Pg. 17, 483 words, Andrew Parker in Barcelona and Stanley Pignal in Brussels

http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=525P-3DX1-JBFS-D010&csi=293847&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

Blog Post#9

by Isaac Velasquez

The Life Alert emergency system product appeals to fear and it uses testimonials. The commercials basically put actors in “life threatening situations” and tell the audience that if it weren’t for Life Alert there would be no way that they would survive. They also use have people tell the audience how life alert has helped them. Those people are usually senior citizens or their kids.

Week 9: Propaganda in Advertising

Commercials

ADT: The technique that was used for the ADT commercial would be the appeal to fear.  They’re basically telling the viewers that their house could have a burglar or even have their house caught on fire if they didn’t have this security system.

Google Search: The technique that was used for the Google search commercial would be appeal to emotions.  The viewers would feel like their questions would have a simple solution by using Google search. Using Google search would make things so much easier, including learning how to say some phrases from a different language.

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